Iridium,  77Ir
Pieces of pure iridium
General properties
Pronunciation/ɪˈrɪdiəm/ (i-RID-ee-əm)
Appearancesilvery white
Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)192.217(2)[1]
Iridium in the periodic table
[[Hydrogen|Hydrogen [[Helium|Helium
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Rh

Ir

Mt
osmiumiridiumplatinum
Atomic number (Z)77
Groupgroup 9
Periodperiod 6
Blockd-block
Element category  transition metal
Electron configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 15, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point2719 K ​(2446 °C, ​4435 °F)
Boiling point4403 K ​(4130 °C, ​7466 °F)
Density (near r.t.)22.56 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)19 g/cm3
Heat of fusion41.12 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization564 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.10 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2713 2957 3252 3614 4069 4659
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−3, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +7, +8, +9[2]
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.20
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 880 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1600 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 136 pm
Covalent radius141±6 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of iridium
Other properties
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for iridium
Speed of sound thin rod4825 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion6.4 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity147 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity47.1 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic[3]
Magnetic susceptibility+25.6·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[4]
Young's modulus528 GPa
Shear modulus210 GPa
Bulk modulus320 GPa
Poisson ratio0.26
Mohs hardness6.5
Vickers hardness1760–2200 MPa
Brinell hardness1670 MPa
CAS Number7439-88-5
History
Discovery and first isolationSmithson Tennant (1803)
Main isotopes of iridium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
188Ir syn 1.73 d ε 188Os
189Ir syn 13.2 d ε 189Os
190Ir syn 11.8 d ε 190Os
191Ir 37.3% stable
192Ir syn 73.827 d β 192Pt
ε 192Os
192m2Ir syn 241 y IT 192Ir
193Ir 62.7% stable
193mIr syn 10.5 d IT 193Ir
194Ir syn 19.3 h β 194Pt
194m2Ir syn 171 d IT 194Ir
| references
Os ←

i'box Os

iso
77
Ir E
→ Pt

i'box Pt

Data sets read by {{Infobox element}}
Name and identifiers
Top image
  image caption
  image alt
Pronunciation
Category (enwiki)
Standard atomic weight
  most stable isotope
Oxidation states
Spectral lines image

References

  1. Meija, J.; മറ്റുള്ളവർക്കൊപ്പം. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Wang, Guanjun; Zhou, Mingfei; Goettel, James T.; Schrobilgen, Gary G.; Su, Jing; Li, Jun; Schlöder, Tobias; Riedel, Sebastian (2014). "Identification of an iridium-containing compound with a formal oxidation state of IX". Nature. 514: 475–477. Bibcode:2014Natur.514..475W. doi:10.1038/nature13795. PMID 25341786.
  3. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
  4. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.

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