Phosphorus,  15P
waxy white (yellow cut), red (granules centre left, chunk centre right), and violet phosphorus
General properties
Pronunciation/ˈfɒsfərəs/ (FOS-fər-əs)
Appearancewaxy white/ red/
black/ colorless/ yellow
Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)30.973761998(5)[1]
Phosphorus in the periodic table
[[Hydrogen|Hydrogen [[Helium|Helium
[[Lithium|Lithium [[Beryllium|Beryllium [[Boron|Boron [[Carbon|Carbon [[Nitrogen|Nitrogen [[Oxygen|Oxygen [[Fluorine|Fluorine [[Neon|Neon
[[Sodium|Sodium [[Magnesium|Magnesium [[Aluminium|Aluminium [[Silicon|Silicon [[Phosphorus|Phosphorus [[Sulfur|Sulfur [[Chlorine|Chlorine [[Argon|Argon
[[Potassium|Potassium [[Calcium|Calcium [[Scandium|Scandium [[Titanium|Titanium [[Vanadium|Vanadium [[Chromium|Chromium [[Manganese|Manganese [[Iron|Iron [[Cobalt|Cobalt [[Nickel|Nickel [[Copper|Copper [[Zinc|Zinc [[Gallium|Gallium [[Germanium|Germanium [[Arsenic|Arsenic [[Selenium|Selenium [[Bromine|Bromine [[Krypton|Krypton
[[Rubidium|Rubidium [[Strontium|Strontium [[Yttrium|Yttrium [[Zirconium|Zirconium [[Niobium|Niobium [[Molybdenum|Molybdenum [[Technetium|Technetium [[Ruthenium|Ruthenium [[Rhodium|Rhodium [[Palladium|Palladium [[Silver|Silver [[Cadmium|Cadmium [[Indium|Indium [[Tin|Tin [[Antimony|Antimony [[Tellurium|Tellurium [[Iodine|Iodine [[Xenon|Xenon
[[Caesium|Caesium [[Barium|Barium [[Lanthanum|Lanthanum [[Cerium|Cerium [[Praseodymium|Praseodymium [[Neodymium|Neodymium [[Promethium|Promethium [[Samarium|Samarium [[Europium|Europium [[Gadolinium|Gadolinium [[Terbium|Terbium [[Dysprosium|Dysprosium [[Holmium|Holmium [[Erbium|Erbium [[Thulium|Thulium [[Ytterbium|Ytterbium [[Lutetium|Lutetium [[Hafnium|Hafnium [[Tantalum|Tantalum [[Tungsten|Tungsten [[Rhenium|Rhenium [[Osmium|Osmium [[Iridium|Iridium [[Platinum|Platinum [[Gold|Gold [[Mercury (element)|Mercury (element) [[Thallium|Thallium [[Lead|Lead [[Bismuth|Bismuth [[Polonium|Polonium [[Astatine|Astatine [[Radon|Radon
[[Francium|Francium [[Radium|Radium [[Actinium|Actinium [[Thorium|Thorium [[Protactinium|Protactinium [[Uranium|Uranium [[Neptunium|Neptunium [[Plutonium|Plutonium [[Americium|Americium [[Curium|Curium [[Berkelium|Berkelium [[Californium|Californium [[Einsteinium|Einsteinium [[Fermium|Fermium [[Mendelevium|Mendelevium [[Nobelium|Nobelium [[Lawrencium|Lawrencium [[Rutherfordium|Rutherfordium [[Dubnium|Dubnium [[Seaborgium|Seaborgium [[Bohrium|Bohrium [[Hassium|Hassium [[Meitnerium|Meitnerium [[Darmstadtium|Darmstadtium [[Roentgenium|Roentgenium [[Copernicium|Copernicium [[Nihonium|Nihonium [[Flerovium|Flerovium [[Moscovium|Moscovium [[Livermorium|Livermorium [[Tennessine|Tennessine [[Oganesson|Oganesson


Atomic number (Z)15
Groupgroup 15 (pnictogens)
Periodperiod 3
Electron configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p3
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 5
Physical properties
Melting point(white) 317.3 K ​(44.2 °C, ​111.6 °F)
Boiling point550 K ​(277 °C, ​531 °F)
Density (near r.t.)(white) 1.823 g/cm3
(red) 2.34 g/cm3
(black) 2.69 g/cm3
Heat of fusion(white) 0.66 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization12.4 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity(white)
23.824 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure (white)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 279 307 342 388 453 549
vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 455 489 529 576 635 704
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−3, −2, −1, +1,[2] +2, +3, +4, +5 (a mildly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.19
Ionization energies
Atomic radiusempirical: 100 pm
calculated: 98 pm
Covalent radius106 pm
Van der Waals radius180 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of phosphorus
Other properties
Thermal conductivity(white)
0.236 W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderingno data
Bulk modulus11 GPa
CAS Number7723-14-0
Main isotopes of phosphorus
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
31P 100% 31P is stable with 16 neutrons
32P syn 14.28 d β- 1.709 32S
33P syn 25.3 d β- 0.249 33S
| references
  1. Meija, J.; മറ്റുള്ളവർക്കൊപ്പം. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  2. Ellis, Bobby D.; MacDonald, Charles L. B. (2006). "Phosphorus(I) Iodide: A Versatile Metathesis Reagent for the Synthesis of Low Oxidation State Phosphorus Compounds". Inorganic Chemistry. 45 (17): 6864–74. doi:10.1021/ic060186o. PMID 16903744.
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