പ്രധാന മെനു തുറക്കുക

ഇറാനും ഇറാഖും തമ്മിൽ 1980 സെപ്റ്റംബർ 2ന് ആരംഭിച്ചു എട്ടുവർഷം നീണ്ട യുദ്ധമായിരുന്നു ഇറാൻ-ഇറാഖ് യുദ്ധം. 1988 ഓഗസ്റ്റ് 20ന് യുദ്ധം അവസാനിച്ചു. മുൻപ് നടത്തിയ കരാർ പ്രകാരം ഇറാന് വിട്ടു കൊടുത്ത പ്രദേശങ്ങൾ തിരികെ വേണം എന്ന് സദ്ദാം ഹുസൈൻ എന്നാവശ്യപ്പെട്ടതാണ് യുദ്ധകാരണം എങ്കിലും ഇറാനിൽ ഉണ്ടായ ഷിയാ വിപ്ലവം അറബ് ലോകത്തേക്ക് പടരാതിരിക്കാൻ അമേരിക്കൻ പിന്തുണയോടെ അറബ് രാജ്യങ്ങൾ ഇറാഖിനെ മുൻ നിർത്തി നടത്തിയ യുധമാനിത് എന്നും ആരോപിക്കപ്പെടാറുണ്ട്

Iran–Iraq War
the Persian Gulf Conflicts ഭാഗം
Chemical weapon1.jpg
Iranian soldier with gas mask and an MG3 in the battlefield
തിയതി22 September 1980 – 20 August 1988
(7 വർഷം, 10 മാസം, 4 ആഴ്ച and 1 ദിവസം)
സ്ഥലംIran–Iraq border
ഫലംStalemate
Territorial
changes
Status quo ante bellum; observed by UNIIMOG based on Security Council Resolution 619
Belligerents
 Iran
  • Kurdistan Democratic Party KDP
  • Patriotic Union of Kurdistan PUK
  • Iraq
    പടനായകരും മറ്റു നേതാക്കളും
    Ruhollah Khomeini
    (Supreme Leader of Iran)
    Saddam Hussein
    (President of Iraq)
    Units involved
    Iranian Armed Forces Iraqi Armed Forces
    ശക്തി
    At the onset of the war:
    110,000–150,000 soldiers,
    1,700–2,100 tanks,[13]
    1,000 armoured vehicles,
    1,100 artillery pieces,[14]
    320 aircraft,
    750 helicopters
    After Iraq withdrew from Iran in 1982:
    350,000 soldiers,
    700 tanks,
    2,700 armoured vehicles,
    400 artillery pieces,
    350 aircraft,
    700 helicopters
    At the end of the war:
    900,000 soldiers,
    2,500,000 militia,
    400 tanks,
    800 armoured vehicles,
    600 artillery pieces,
    60–80 aircraft,
    70–90 helicopters
    At the onset of the war:
    200,000 soldiers,
    2,500 tanks,
    2,000 armoured vehicles,
    800 artillery pieces,
    330 aircraft,
    350 helicopters
    After Iraq withdrew from Iran in 1982:
    175,000 soldiers,
    1,200 tanks,
    2,300 armoured vehicles,
    400 artillery pieces,
    450 aircraft,
    180 helicopters
    At the end of the war:
    1,500,000 soldiers,[അവലംബം ആവശ്യമാണ്]
    5,500–6,700 tanks,
    8,500–10,000 armoured vehicles,
    6,000–12,000 artillery pieces,
    950 aircraft,
    1,000 helicopters
    നാശനഷ്ടങ്ങൾ
    123,220–160,000 KIA and 60,711 MIA (Iranian claim)[15][16]
    200,000–600,000 killed (other estimates)[15][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]
    800,000 killed (Iraqi claim)[15]
    1,000,000+ killed (other estimates)[25]

    320,000–500,000 WIA[18][26][27]
    40,000–42,875 POW[26][27]
    11,000–16,000 civilian dead[15][16]

    Economic loss of US$627 billion[15][17]
    105,000–375,000 killed[15][26][28][29][30]
    250,000–500,000 (other estimates)[25]
    400,000 WIA[29]

    70,000 POW[18][29]

    Economic loss of $561 billion[15][17]
    100,000+ civilians killed on both sides[31]
    (not including 182,000 civilians killed in the Al-Anfal Campaign)[32]
    ¹ The exact number of Iraqi Shia that fought alongside Iran is unknown. The Iraqi political parties SCIRI and Islamic Da'wa Party supported Iran during the war. Iran would sometimes organise divisions of Iraqi POWs to fight against Iraq.

    അവലംബംതിരുത്തുക

    1. Iran and Syria| Jubin Goodarzi
    2. Copulsky, Alex (Winter 2008), "Death of a Salesman", Harvard Political Review, 356 (6370): 627, Bibcode:1992Natur.356..627R, doi:10.1038/356627a0
    3. Friedman, Alan. Spider's Web: The Secret History of How the White House Illegally Armed Iraq, Bantam Books, 1993.
    4. Timmerman, Kenneth R. The Death Lobby: How the West Armed Iraq. New York, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991.
    5. Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. (1988), "Arms from France", Iraq: a Country Study, Library of Congress
    6. Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. (1988), "The Soviet Union", Iraq: a Country Study, Library of Congress
    7. Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. (1988), "Arms from The Soviet Union", Iraq: a Country Study, Library of Congress
    8. "Brief History of Qatar". Heritage of Qatar. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 7 November 2012.
    9. Vatanka, Alex (22 March 2012). "The Odd Couple". The Majalla. Saudi Research and Publishing Company. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 7 November 2012.
    10. Anthony, John Duke; Ochsenwald, William L.; Crystal, Jill Ann. "Kuwait". Encyclopædia Britannica.
    11. David Kenneth Schenker, Dancing with Saddam: The Strategic Tango of Jordanian-Iraqi Relations
    12. Mearsheimer, John J.; Walt, Stephen M. (12 November 2002). "Can Saddam Be Contained? History Says Yes". International Security. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs.
    13. Farrokh, Kaveh, 305 (2011)
    14. Farrokh, Kaveh, 304 (2011)
    15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 Hiro, Dilip (1991). The Longest War: The Iran-Iraq Military Conflict. New York: Routledge. p. 205. ISBN 9780415904063. OCLC 22347651.
    16. 16.0 16.1 Abrahamian, Ervand (2008). A History of Modern Iran. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 171–175, 212. ISBN 9780521528917. OCLC 171111098.
    17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Rajaee, Farhang (1997). Iranian Perspectives on the Iran-Iraq War. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. p. 2. ISBN 9780813014760. OCLC 492125659.
    18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 418. ISBN 9781598843361. OCLC 775759780.
    19. Hammond Atlas of the 20th Century (1999) P. 134-5
    20. Dunnigan, A Quick and Dirty Guide to War (1991)
    21. Dictionary of Twentieth Century World History, by Jan Palmowski (Oxford, 1997)
    22. Clodfelter, Michael, Warfare and Armed Conflict: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1618-1991
    23. Chirot, Daniel: Modern Tyrants : the power and prevalence of evil in our age (1994)
    24. "B&J": Jacob Bercovitch and Richard Jackson, International Conflict : A Chronological Encyclopedia of Conflicts and Their Management 1945-1995 (1997) p. 195
    25. 25.0 25.1 Iran and Iraq remember war that cost more than a million lives
    26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Potter, Lawrence G.; Sick, Gary (2006). Iran, Iraq and the Legacies of War. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 8. ISBN 9781403976093. OCLC 70230312.
    27. 27.0 27.1 Zargar, Moosa; Araghizadeh, Hassan; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Khaji, Ali (December 2012). "Iranian casualties during the eight years of Iraq-Iran conflict" (PDF). Revista de Saúde Pública. São Paulo: Faculdade de Higiene e Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo. 41 (6): 1065. doi:10.1590/S0034-89102007000600025. ISSN 0034-8910. OCLC 4645489824. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2 November 2013.
    28. Rumel, Rudolph. "Centi-Kilo Murdering States: Estimates, Sources, and Calculations". Power Kills. University of Hawai'i.
    29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 Karsh, Efraim (2002). The Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 89. ISBN 9781841763712. OCLC 48783766.
    30. Koch, Christian; Long, David E. (1997). Gulf Security in the Twenty-First Century. Abu Dhabi: Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research. p. 29. ISBN 9781860643163. OCLC 39035954.
    31. Rumel, Rudolph. "Lesser Murdering States, Quasi-States, and Groups: Estimates, Sources, and Calculations". Power Kills. University of Hawai'i.
    32. Sinan, Omar (25 June 2007). "Iraq to hang 'Chemical Ali'". Tampa Bay Times. Associated Press.
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