സഹായം:IPA chart for Spanish
See Spanish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Spanish.
- Other than in loanwords (e.g. hámster; hachís; hawaiano), the letter ‹h› is always silent in Spanish except in a few dialects that retain it as [h] or [x] (halar / jalar; Sáhara).
- /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ and /ʝ/ are between fricatives and approximants ([β̞, ð̞, ɣ̞, ʝ̞]; represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pause, after an /n/ or /m/, or—in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/—after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, g, ɟʝ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g, j (Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté 2003:257-8).
- The phoneme /f/ is often pronounced as [ɸ], with the lips touching each other rather than the front teeth.
- In metropolitan areas of the Iberian Peninsula and some Central American countries, /ʎ/ has merged into /ʝ/; the actual realization depends on dialect. In Rioplatense Spanish, it has become [ʃ] or [ʒ]. See yeísmo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
- The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. This is partially reflected in the orthography. Word-finally, only /n/ occurs.
- The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /r/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, before consonants, and word-finally; [ɾ] is found elsewhere.
- For many speakers, fricatives (/s/, /θ/ and /x/) may debuccalize or be deleted in the syllable coda (at the end of words and before consonants); e.g. reloj [reˈlo].
- In Latin America, Canary Islands and some regions in Andalusia /θ/ has merged into /s/. See seseo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
- Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
- The marginal phonemes are found in loanwords, largely from Basque, English, and Nahuatl.
- In many dialects, /ʃ/ is replaced by [tʃ] or [s]; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou].
- The Spanish /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of play (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bed; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
- The Spanish /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of coat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of raw; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
- In Spanish, the semivowels [w] and [j] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs though; e.g. aire, rey, auto, are transcribed with /i/ and /u/.
- Some speakers may pronounce word initial [w] with an epenthetic /g/; e.g. Huila [ˈgwila]~[ˈwila].
- "Grapheme h". Diccionario panhispánico de dudas. Real Academia Española.
- Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259
- Animations and video demonstrations of the IPA for Spanish by The Departments of Spanish and Portuguese, German, Speech Pathology and Audiology, and Academic Technologies at the University of Iowa.