പ്രധാന മെനു തുറക്കുക

The chart below shows how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Swedish pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. The pronunciation is based primarily on Central Standard Swedish. See Swedish phonology for details about pronunciation.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b About this soundbok book
ɕ About this soundkjol, About this soundtjock, About this soundkön sheep
d About this sounddop dad
ɖ About this soundnord[1] order
f About this soundfot foot
ɡ About this soundgod good
h About this soundhot hat
ɧ About this soundsju, About this soundstjärna, About this soundskör, About this soundstation, About this soundpension, About this soundgeni, About this soundchoklad[2] somewhat like shoe (varies regionally)
j About this soundjord, About this soundgenom, About this soundGöteborg yoyo
k About this soundkon cone
l About this soundlov lack
ɭ About this soundrl[1] somewhat like carl
m About this soundmod mode
n About this soundnod node
ɳ About this soundbarn[1] turner
ŋ About this soundng long
p About this soundpol pole
r About this soundrov[3] a trilled r when articulated clearly or in slow or
formal speech; in normal speech, it is usually
a tapped r or an alveolar approximant
s About this soundsot soot
ʂ About this soundtorsdag[1] marshal (in some dialects)
t About this soundtok tea
ʈ About this soundparti[1] cartel
v About this soundvåt vote
Rare sounds
IPA Examples English approximation
w Wales Wales
IPA Examples English approximation
Audio file "Sv-Zlatan.ogg" not found, Audio file "Sv-Bratislava.ogg" not found father
œɪ Audio file "Sv-Creutz.ogg" not found, Audio file "Sv-Reuter.ogg" not found void
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a About this soundmatt RP hat
ɑː About this soundmat bra
About this soundfet hear
ɛ About this soundhäll, About this soundfett sell
ɛː About this soundhäl RP pair
æ About this soundvärk[4],About this soundverk[4] trap
æː About this soundära[4] ham
ɪ About this soundsill hit
About this soundsil leave
ɔ About this soundmoll[5] RP pot
About this soundmål[5] floor
œ About this soundnött[5] somewhat like RP nurse
œː About this soundöra[4][5] somewhat like RP burn
øː About this soundnöt[5]
ɵ About this soundfull,
About this soundmusik[5][6]
somewhat like put
ʉ Audio file "Sv-duell.ogg" not found,
Audio file "Sv-känguru.ogg" not found[5][6][7]
somewhat like put; German About this soundmüssen
ʉː About this soundful[5][8] like Scottish do; German Audio file "De-üben.ogg" not found
ʊ About this soundbott[5] put
About this soundbot[5] boot
ʏ About this soundsyll[5][7] like syllable; Norwegian Audio file "No-nytt.ogg" not found
About this soundsyl[5][8] somewhat like leave; Norwegian Audio file "No-lys.ogg" not found
Stress, tone and syllabification
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ anden
[ˈanːdɛn][9]
tone 1 / acute accent:[10]
² anden
[²anːdɛn][9]
tone 2 / grave accent:[10]
  • falling-falling tone in Stockholm: [ˈânːdɛ̂n]
  • falling-rising tone in Gothenburg: [ˈânːdɛ̌n]
  • rising-falling tone in Malmö: [ˈǎnːdɛ̂n]
  • simple primary stress in Finland and some
    parts of mainland Sweden: [ˈanːdɛn][11]
ˌ Oxenstierna
[²ʊksɛnˌɧæːɳa]
secondary stress, as in intonation
. fria
[²friː.a]
syllable break: co-op, rower

Notesതിരുത്തുക

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive sandhi process of retroflexion occurs, and clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realisations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern Swedish, they are [ʁd], [ʁl], [ʁn], [ʁs], [ʁt].
  2. Swedish /ɧ/ varies regionally and is sometimes [], [ɸˠ], or [ʂ].
  3. /r/ varies considerably in different dialects. It is pronounced alveolar or similarly in virtually all dialects, but in South Swedish dialects, it is uvular, similar to the Parisian French "r". At the beginning of a syllable, it can also be pronounced as a fricative [ʒ], as in English "genre" or "vision".
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: the unrounded vowels /ɛ/ and /ɛː/ are lowered to [æ] and [æː], whereas the rounded /[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "œ̫˔" not found in list|œ]]/ and /[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ø̫" not found in list|øː]]/ are lowered to open-mid [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "œ̫" not found in list|œ]]] and [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "œ̫" not found in list|œː]]]. For simplicity, no distinction is made between the mid [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "œ̫˔" not found in list|œ]]] and the open-mid [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "œ̫" not found in list|œ]]], with both being transcribed as ⟨œ⟩. Note that younger speakers use lower allophones [ɶ] and [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɶː" not found in list|ɶː]]].
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 [ɔ, , œ, œː, øː, ʏ, ] are protruded vowels, and [ɵ, ʉ, ʉː, ʊ, ] are compressed. See roundedness for details.
  6. 6.0 6.1 [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɵ̞" not found in list|ɵ]]] and [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̈" not found in list|ʉ]]] are unstressed allophones of a single phoneme /ɵ/ (stressed /ɵ/ is always realized as [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɵ̞" not found in list|ɵ]]]):
  7. 7.0 7.1 The distinction between compressed [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̈" not found in list|ʉ]]] and protruded [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̫" not found in list|ʏ]]] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Swedish compressed [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̈" not found in list|ʉ]]] sounds very close to German compressed [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ͍" not found in list|ʏ]]] (as in müssen [ˈmʏsn̩] ).
    • Swedish protruded [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̫" not found in list|ʏ]]] sounds more similar to English unrounded [ɪ] (as in hit) than to German compressed [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ͍" not found in list|ʏ]]], and it is very close to Norwegian protruded [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̫" not found in list|ʏ]]] (as in nytt [nʏtː] ).
  8. 8.0 8.1 The distinction between compressed [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ͍" not found in list|ʉː]]] and protruded [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "y̫" not found in list|yː]]] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Swedish compressed [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ͍" not found in list|ʉː]]] sounds very close to German compressed [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "y͍" not found in list|yː]]] (as in üben [ˈyːbn̩] ).
    • Swedish protruded [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "y̫" not found in list|yː]]] sounds more similar to English unrounded [] (as in leave) than to German compressed [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "y͍" not found in list|yː]]], and it is very close to Norwegian protruded [[[ Error using {{ IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "y̫" not found in list|yː]]] (as in lys [lyːs] ).
  9. 9.0 9.1 Placed before the stressed syllable. For words with the second toneme, ⟨²⟩ will be used instead of the primary stress mark.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Unless it is needed, the narrow phonetic transcription of Swedish tonemes is not to be used in articles.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Finland Swedish, as well as few accents of Mainland Sweden, have a simple primary stress rather than a contrastive pitch accent. In such accents, anden (meaning 'wild duck') and anden (meaning 'spirit') are pronounced identically.

Bibliographyതിരുത്തുക

  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Riad, Tomas (2014), The Phonology of Swedish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954357-1

External linksതിരുത്തുക

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