പ്രധാന മെനു തുറക്കുക

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents German language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See German phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of German.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
[b] Ball[1] ball
[ç] ich hue
[d] dann[1] done
[f] Fass fuss
[ɡ] Gast[1] gust
[h] hat hut
[j] ja yard
[k] kalt kick
[l] Last last
[m] Mast must
[n] Naht not
[ŋ] lang long
[p] Pakt pack
[pf] Pfahl p + f
[ʁ] Rast[2] like a French R
[ʀ] Rast[2] like a French R
[r] Rast[2] like an Italian R
[s] Hast fast
[ʃ] schal shall
[t] Tal tall
[ts] Zahl cats
[tʃ] Matsch match
[v] was vast
[x] Bach[3] loch (Scottish)
[z] Hase[1] hose
[ʔ] beamtet[4]
([bəˈʔamtət])
the catch in uh-oh!
Non-native consonants
[ð] Motherboard[5] as in English
[dʒ] Dschungel[1] jungle
[ɹ] Rockband[6] as in English
[w] Walkman[7] as in English
[θ] Thread[8] as in English
[ʒ] Genie[1] beige, Zsa Zsa
Stress
ˈ Bahnhofstraße
([ˈbaːnhoːfˌʃtʁaːsə])
as in ˈbattleˌship
ˌ
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Stressed and unstressed[dubious ]
[a] Dach bra (but shorter)
Bahn bra
weit tie
Haut how
Beet face
[ɛ] hätte bed
ɛː wähle[9] as above but longer; like RP English bared
viel meet
[ɪ] bist sit
Boot bone
[ɔ] Post caught (but shorter)
ɔʏ Heu boy
øː Öl somewhat like hurl; French deux
[œ] göttlich somewhat like hurt; French sœur
Hut true
[ʊ] Putz took
Rübe French rue
[ʏ] füllt somewhat like the above
Unstressed only
[ɐ] Ober[2] fun
[ə] halte comma
Non-native vowels
[e] Methan (short [eː])
[i] vital city (short [iː])
[o] Moral (short [oː])
[ø] Ökonom (short [øː])
[u] kulant (short [uː])
[y] Psychologie (short [yː])
ã Pensee[10] (nasalized [a])
ãː Gourmand[10] (long nasalized [a])
ɛ̃ timbrieren[11] (nasalized [ɛ])
ɛ̃ː Teint[11] (long nasalized [ɛ])
ɔ̃ Fondue[12] (nasalized [ɔ])
ɔ̃ː Fond[12] (long nasalized [ɔ])
œ̃ Lundist[13] (nasalized [œ])
œ̃ː Parfum[13] (long nasalized [œ])
Marginal vowels
ɔː Walkman[14] as in English
[ʌ] Motherboard[15] as in English
Semivowels
ɐ̯ Uhr[2] fun
Studie studio
aktuell actual

Notesതിരുത്തുക

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 The German lenis consonants [b d ɡ z ʒ dʒ] are often pronounced without voice as [b̥ d̥ ɡ̊ z̥ ʒ̊ d̥ʒ̊]. In Southern German, the voiceless pronunciation prevails.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Pronunciation of /r/ in German varies according to region and speaker. While older prescriptive pronunciation dictionaries only allowed [r], this pronunciation is nowadays mainly found in Switzerland, Bavaria and Austria, while in other regions, the uvular pronunciation prevails, with the allophones [ʁ] and [ʀ]. In many regions except for Switzerland, the /r/ in the syllable coda is vowelized to [ɐ̯] after long vowels or after all vowels, and /ər/ is pronounced as [ɐ]
  3. Realized as a uvular fricative [χ] after /a/, /aː/, and often /ʊ/, /ɔ/, and /aʊ/.
  4. In many varieties of German except for Swiss Standard German, all initial vowels are preceded by [ʔ].
  5. Many German speakers replace [ð] with [z].
  6. Many German speakers replace [ɹ] with [ʁ].
  7. Many German speakers replace [w] with [v].
  8. Many German speakers replace [θ] with [s].
  9. Often replaced by [eː]
  10. 10.0 10.1 Sometimes replaced by [aŋ].
  11. 11.0 11.1 Sometimes replaced by [ɛŋ].
  12. 12.0 12.1 Sometimes replaced by [ɔŋ].
  13. 13.0 13.1 Sometimes replaced by [œŋ].
  14. Many German speakers replace [ɔː] with [ɔ] or [oː].
  15. Many German speakers replace [ʌ] with [a].

Bibliographyതിരുത്തുക

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