വംശനാശഭീഷണിയുള്ള ജീവവർഗ്ഗങ്ങളുടെ അന്താരാഷ്ട്രവ്യാപാരത്തിനുള്ള ഉടമ്പടി
വംശനാശഭീഷണിയുള്ള ജീവവർഗ്ഗങ്ങളുടെ സംരക്ഷണത്തിനായുള്ള ഒരു ബഹുരാഷ്ട്ര ഉടമ്പടിയാണ് വംശനാശഭീഷണിയുള്ള ജീവവർഗ്ഗങ്ങളുടെ അന്താരാഷ്ട്രവ്യാപാരത്തിനുള്ള ഉടമ്പടി അഥവാ CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, ഇത് Washington Convention എന്നും അറിയപ്പെടുന്നു. It was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The convention was opened for signature in 1973 and CITES entered into force on 1 July 1975. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild, and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants. In order to ensure that the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was not violated, the Secretariat of GATT was consulted during the drafting process.
|The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species|
|3 മാർച്ച് 1973|
|1 July 1975|
|Depositary||Government of the Swiss Confederation|
|Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora at Wikisource|
Roughly 5,000 species of animals and 29,000 species of plants are protected by CITES against over-exploitation through international trade. Each protected species or population is included in one of three lists, called appendices (explained below). The Appendix that lists a species or population reflects the extent of the threat to it and the controls that apply to the trade.
Appendix I, about 1200 species, are species that are threatened with extinction and are or may be affected by trade. Commercial trade in wild-caught specimens of these species is illegal (permitted only in exceptional licensed circumstances). Captive-bred animals or cultivated plants of Appendix I species are considered Appendix II specimens, with concomitant requirements (see below and Article VII). The Scientific Authority of the exporting country must make a non-detriment finding, assuring that export of the individuals will not adversely affect the wild population. Any trade in these species requires export and import permits. The Management Authority of the exporting state is expected to check that an import permit has been secured and that the importing state is able to care for the specimen adequately. Notable animal species listed in Appendix I include the red panda (Ailurus fulgens), western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), the chimpanzee species (Pan spp.), tigers (Panthera tigris subspecies), Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica), leopards (Panthera pardus), jaguar (Panthera onca), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), some populations of African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana), the dugong and manatees (Sirenia), and all rhinoceros species (except some Southern African subspecies populations).
Appendix II, about 21,000 species, are species that are not necessarily threatened with extinction, but may become so unless trade in specimens of such species is subject to strict regulation in order to avoid utilization incompatible with the survival of the species in the wild. In addition, Appendix II can include species similar in appearance to species already listed in the Appendices. International trade in specimens of Appendix II species may be authorized by the granting of an export permit or re-export certificate. In practice, many hundreds of thousands of Appendix II animals are traded annually. No import permit is necessary for these species under CITES, although some Parties do require import permits as part of their stricter domestic measures. A non-detriment finding and export permit are required by the exporting Party.
In addition, Article VII of CITES states that specimens of animals listed in Appendix I that are bred in captivity for commercial purposes are treated as Appendix II. The same applies for specimens of Appendix I plants artificially propagated for commercial purposes.
Examples of species listed on Appendix II are the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), the American black bear (Ursus americanus), Hartmann's mountain zebra (Equus zebra hartmannae), green iguana (Iguana iguana), queen conch (Strombus gigas), Emperor scorpion (Pandinus imperator), Mertens' water monitor (Varanus mertensi), bigleaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and lignum vitae "ironwood" (Guaiacum officinale).
Appendix III, about 170 species, are species that are listed after one member country has asked other CITES Parties for assistance in controlling trade in a species. The species are not necessarily threatened with extinction globally. In all member countries, trade in these species is only permitted with an appropriate export permit and a certificate of origin from the state of the member country who has listed the species.
Examples of species listed on Appendix III and the countries that listed them are the two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni) by Costa Rica, sitatunga (Tragelaphus Spekii) by Ghana, African civet (Civettictis civetta) by Botswana, and alligator snapping turtle by the USA.
Amendments and reservationsതിരുത്തുക
===Approach to biodiversity conservation===.
From 2005 – 2009 the legal trade corresponded with these numbers
- 317,000 live birds
- More than 2 million live reptiles
- 2.5 million crocodile skins
- 2.1 million snake skins
- 73 tons of caviar
- 1.1 million beaver skins
- Millions of pieces of coral
- 20,000 mammalian hunting trophies
In the 1990s the annual trade of legal animal products was $160 billion annually. In 2009 the estimated value almost doubled to $300 billion.
The Conference of the Parties (CoP) is held once every three years. The last Conference of the Parties (CoP 17) was held in Johannesburg, South Africa, and the one before it (CoP 16) was held in Bangkok, Thailand, in 2013. The next one (CoP 18) will be in Sri Lanka in 2019. The location of the next CoP is chosen at the close of each CoP by a secret ballot vote.
The CITES Committees (Animals Committee, Plants Committee and Standing Committee) hold meetings during each year that does not have a CoP, while the Standing committee meets also in years with a CoP. The Committee meetings take place in Geneva, Switzerland (where the Secretariat of the CITES Convention is located), unless another country offers to host the meeting. The Animals and Plants Committees have sometimes held joint meetings. The previous joint meeting was held in March 2012 in Dublin, Ireland, and the latest one was held in Veracruz, Mexico in May 2014.
|CoP 1||Bern||Switzerland||2–6 November 1976|
|CoP 2||San José||Costa Rica||19–30 March 1979|
|CoP 3||New Delhi||India||25 February – 8 March 1981|
|CoP 4||Gaborone||Botswana||19 – 30 April 1983|
|CoP 5||Buenos Aires||Argentina||22 April – 3 May 1985|
|CoP 6||Ottawa||Canada||12–24 July 1987|
|CoP 7||Lausanne||Switzerland||9–20 October 1989|
|CoP 8||Kyoto||Japan||2–13 March 1992|
|CoP 9||Fort Lauderdale||United States||7–18 November 1994|
|CoP 10||Harare||Zimbabwe||9–20 June 1997|
|CoP 11||Gigiri||Kenya||10–20 April 2000|
|CoP 12||Santiago||Chile||3–15 November 2002|
|CoP 13||Bangkok||Thailand||2–14 October 2004|
|CoP 14||The Hague||Netherlands||3–15 June 2007|
|CoP 15||Doha||Qatar||13–25 March 2010|
|CoP 16||Bangkok||Thailand||3–14 March 2013|
|CoP 17||Johannesburg||South Africa||24 September – 5 October 2016|
|CoP 18||Colombo||Sri Lanka||2019|
A current list of upcoming meetings appears on the CITES calendar at http://www.cites.org/eng/news/calendar.php.
- Environmental agreements
- IUCN Red List
- Ivory trade
- List of species protected by CITES Appendix I
- List of species protected by CITES Appendix II
- List of species protected by CITES Appendix III
- Shark finning
- Wildlife conservation
- Wildlife Enforcement Monitoring System
- Wildlife management
- Wildlife smuggling
- World Wildlife Day
- "What is CITES?". cites.org. CITES. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 13 February 2012.
- "Ivonne Higuero named as new CITES Secretary-General". cites.org. CITES. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 3 December 2018.
- ഉദ്ധരിച്ചതിൽ പിഴവ്: അസാധുവായ
DMKഎന്ന പേരിലെ അവലംബങ്ങൾക്ക് എഴുത്തൊന്നും നൽകിയിട്ടില്ല.
- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (2013). "Appendices I, II and III". ശേഖരിച്ചത് 13 September 2013.
- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. "The CITES Appendices". ശേഖരിച്ചത് 13 September 2013.
- "Appendices I, II and III". cites.org. CITES. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 13 February 2012.
- "CITES Export Quotas". cites.org. CITES. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 13 February 2012.
- "Article VII: Exemptions and Other Special Provisions Relating to Trade". Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. CITES. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 17 October 2014.
- Ceballos, G.; Ehrlich, A. H.; Ehrlich, P. R. (2015). The Annihilation of Nature: Human Extinction of Birds and Mammals. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 150. ISBN 1421417189 – via Open Edition.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to CITES.|
- Member countries (Parties)
- Chronological list of Parties
- Alphabetical list of Parties at CITES and at the depositary
- National contacts
- Lists of species included in Appendices I, II and III (i.e. species protected by CITES)