"സിറ്റേഷ്യൻ ജീവികളുടെ പട്ടിക" എന്ന താളിന്റെ പതിപ്പുകൾ തമ്മിലുള്ള വ്യത്യാസം

1,409 ബൈറ്റുകൾ കൂട്ടിച്ചേർത്തിരിക്കുന്നു ,  1 മാസം മുമ്പ്
89 ഇനം [[Whale|തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ]], [[Dolphin|ഡോൾഫിനുകൾ]], [[Porpoise|പോർപോയിസുകൾ]] എന്നിവ ഉൾപ്പെടുന്ന ഒരു [[Infraorder|ഇൻഫ്രാ ഓർഡെറാണ്]] [[Cetacea|സിറ്റേഷ്യ]]. ഇവയെ [[Toothed whale|പല്ലുള്ള തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ]] (Odontoceti) എന്നും [[Baleen whale|ബാലീൻബലീൻ തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ]] (Mysticeti) എന്നും രണ്ട് ഉപ വിഭാഗങ്ങളായി വിഭജിച്ചിരിക്കുന്നു. [[Eocene|ഈയസീൻ കാലഘട്ടത്തിൽ]] ഏകദേശം 26 മുതൽ 17 [[Mya (unit)|ദശലക്ഷം]] (mya) വർഷങ്ങൾക്ക് മുൻപാണ് ഇവ രണ്ട് വ്യത്യസ്ത വിഭാഗങ്ങളായി പരിണമിച്ചത്. <ref>{{cite book|url={{Google books|plainurl=yes|id=sD3NBQAAQBAJ |page=111}}|title=Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Cetaceans|last1=Jamieson|first1=Barrie G. M.|date=2016-04-19|publisher=CRC Press|isbn=978-1-4398-4257-7|editor1-last=Miller|editor1-first=Debra L.|series=Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny|volume=7|page=111}}</ref> .<ref name="ncbi.nlm.nih.gov">{{cite journal|title=The phylogeny of Cetartiodactyla: the importance of dense taxon sampling, missing data, and the remarkable promise of cytochrome b to provide reliable species-level phylogenies|journal=Mol Phylogenet Evol|year=2008|last1=Agnarsson|first1=I.|last2=May-Collado|first2=LJ.|volume=48|issue=3|pages=964–985|pmid=18590827|doi=10.1016/j.ympev.2008.05.046}}</ref><ref name="ReferenceB">{{cite journal|title=A complete phylogeny of the whales, dolphins and even-toed hoofed mammals – Cetartiodactyla|journal=Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc|year=2005|last1=Price|first1=SA.|last2=Bininda-Emonds|first2=OR.|last3=Gittleman|first3=JL.|volume=80|issue=3|pages=445–473|pmid=16094808|doi=10.1017/s1464793105006743|s2cid=45056197}}</ref><ref name="mbe.oxfordjournals.org">{{cite journal|title=Phylogenetic relationships of artiodactyls and cetaceans as deduced from the comparison of cytochrome b and 12S RNA mitochondrial sequences|journal=Molecular Biology and Evolution|year=1997|last1=Montgelard|first1=C.|last2=Catzeflis|first2=FM.|last3=Douzery|first3=E.|volume=14|issue=5|pages=550–559|pmid=9159933|doi=10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025792|doi-access=free}}</ref><ref name="plosone.org">{{cite journal|title=Relationships of Cetacea -Artiodactyla- Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and Character Evolution|journal=PLOS ONE|volume=4|issue=9|pages=e7062|year=2009|last1=Spaulding|first1=M.|last2=O'Leary|first2=MA.|last3=Gatesy|first3=J.|doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0007062|pmid=19774069|bibcode=2009PLoSO...4.7062S|pmc=2740860}}</ref><ref name="Cetacean Species and Taxonomy">{{cite web|url=http://www.iucn-csg.org/index.php/taxonomy/|title=Cetacean Species and Taxonomy|accessdate=December 14, 2015|website=IUCN-SSC: Cetacean Specialist Group}}</ref>
 
== Mysticeti: baleenബലീൻ തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ ==
{{Main|Baleen whale}}
The baleen തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾwhales, also called തിമിംഗലംbഒരുwhalebone തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾwhales or great തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾwhales, form thetheമിസ്റ്റിസേറ്റി എന്ന [[parvorderParvorder|പാർവോർഡറിൽ]] Mysticetiഉൾപ്പെടുന്ന ജീവികളാണ് ബലീൻ തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ. Baleenഇവ വേൽബോൺ വേൽസ് എന്നും വലിയ തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ areഎന്നും characterizedഅറിയപ്പെടുന്നു by. havingആഹാരം അരിച്ചെടുത്ത് ഭക്ഷിക്കുന്നതിനു സഹായിക്കുന്ന [[baleenബലീൻ|ബലീനുകൾ]], platesരണ്ട് forനാസാരന്ധ്രങ്ങൾ filterഎന്നിവയാണ് feedingഇത്തരം and രണ്ട്തിമിംഗലങ്ങളുടെ blowholesസവിശേഷത.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Karlsen|first=K.|year=1962|title=Development of tooth germs and adjacent structures in the whalebone whale (''Balaenoptera physalus'')|journal=Hvalrådets Skrifter: Scientific Results of Marine Biological Research|volume=45|pages=1–56}}</ref>
 
=== Familyകുടുംബം Balaenidae: rightവലത് തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ ===
{{See also|Balaenidae}}
The familyകുടുംബം Balaenidae, the rightവലത് തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ, contains രണ്ട് genera and നാല് സ്പീഷീസ്. All rightവലത് തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ have no ventral grooves; a distinctive head shape with a strongly arched, narrow [[Rostrum (anatomy)|rostrum]], bowed lower jaw; lower lips that enfold the sides and front of the rostrum; and long, narrow, elastic baleen plates (up to nine times longer than wide) with fine baleen fringes.<ref name="Martin">{{cite book|title=Whales and Dolphins|last=Martin|first=Dr. Anthony R.|publisher=Salamander Books|year=1991|isbn=978-0-8160-3922-7|location=London}}</ref>
{| class="wikitable" style="width:100%;text-align:center"
| colspan="100%" align="center" bgcolor="#BBBBFF" |ജീനസ് '''''[[Balaena]]''''' <small>[[Carl Linnaeus|Linnaeus]], [[10th edition of Systema Naturae|1758]]</small> – ഒരു സ്പീഷീസ്
|[[പ്രമാണം:A_bowhead_whale_breaches_off_the_coast_of_western_Sea_of_Okhotsk_by_Olga_Shpak,_Marine_Mammal_Council,_IEE_RAS.jpg|194x194ബിന്ദു|Bowhead whale]]
|-
| colspan="100%" align="center" bgcolor="#BBBBFF" |ജീനസ് '''''[[Eubalaena]]''''' <small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1864</small> – മൂന്ന് സ്പീഷീസ്
|-
! scope="col" |പൊതുവായ പേര്
! scope="col" |ചിത്രം
|-
|[[North Atlantic right whale|North Atlantic rightവലത് തിമിംഗലം]]
|''Eubalaena glacialis''
<small>[[Johannes Peter Müller|Müller]], 1776</small>
|[[പ്രമാണം:Anim1750_-_Flickr_-_NOAA_Photo_Library.jpg|150x150ബിന്ദു|North Atlantic right whale]]
|-
|[[North Pacific right whale|North Pacific rightവലത് തിമിംഗലം]]
|''Eubalaena japonica''
<small>[[Bernard Germain de Lacépède|Lacépède]], 1818</small>
|[[പ്രമാണം:NoPacificRightWhale_Pitman_1.jpg|150x150ബിന്ദു|North Pacific right whale]]
|-
|[[Southern right whale|Southern rightവലത് തിമിംഗലം]]
|''Eubalaena australis''
<small>[[Desmoulins]], 1822</small>
</onlyinclude>
 
=== Familyകുടുംബം Balaenopteridae: rorquals ===
{{See also|Rorqual}}
Rorquals are the largest group of baleen തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ, with nine സ്പീഷീസ് in രണ്ട് genera. They include the largest animal that has ever lived, the [[Blue whale|blue തിമിംഗലം]]. They take their name from a [[Norwegian language|Norwegian]] word meaning "furrow തിമിംഗലം": all members of the familyകുടുംബം have a series of longitudinal folds of skin running from below the mouth back to the [[navel]] (except the [[Sei whale|sei തിമിംഗലം]], which has shorter grooves). They allow the mouth to expand immensely when feeding.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Goldbogen|first1=Jeremy A.|title=The Ultimate Mouthful: Lunge Feeding in Rorqual Whales|journal=American Scientist|date=2010|volume=98|issue=2|pages=124–131|doi=10.1511/2010.83.124|url=http://www.americanscientist.org/issues/pub/the-ultimate-mouthful-lunge-feeding-in-rorqual-whales}}</ref> All rorquals have these unique folds.<ref name="Martin" />
{| class="wikitable" style="width:100%;text-align:center"
| colspan="100%" align="center" style="background-color:lightblue;" |SubfamilySubകുടുംബം '''Balaenopteridae''' – ഒരു ജീനസ്, eight സ്പീഷീസ്
|-
| colspan="100%" align="center" bgcolor="#BBBBFF" |ജീനസ് '''''[[Balaenoptera]]''''' – eight സ്പീഷീസ്
|[[പ്രമാണം:Minke_whale_in_ross_sea.jpg|150x150ബിന്ദു|Antarctic minke whale]]
|-
| colspan="100%" align="center" style="background-color:lightblue;" |SubfamilySubകുടുംബം '''[[Megapterinae]]''' – ഒരു ജീനസ്, ഒരു സ്പീഷീസ്
|-
| colspan="100%" align="center" bgcolor="#BBBBFF" |ജീനസ് '''''[[Megaptera]]''''' <small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1846</small> – ഒരു സ്പീഷീസ്
|-
! scope="col" |പൊതുവായ പേര്
|}
 
=== Familyകുടുംബം Cetotheriidae: pygmyകുഞ്ഞൻ rightവലത് തിമിംഗലം ===
{{See also|Cetotheriidae}}
The pygmyകുഞ്ഞൻ rightവലത് തിമിംഗലം shares several characteristics with the rightവലത് തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ, with the exception of having a dorsal fin. Also, pygmyകുഞ്ഞൻ rightവലത് തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ' heads are no more than ഒരു-നാല്th the വലിപ്പം of their bodies, whereas the rightവലത് തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ' heads are about ഒരു-third the വലിപ്പം of their bodies.<ref name="Martin" /> The pygmyകുഞ്ഞൻ rightവലത് തിമിംഗലം is the only [[Extant taxon|extant member]] of its familyകുടുംബം.
{| class="wikitable" style="width:100%;text-align:center"
| colspan="100%" align="center" bgcolor="#BBBBFF" |ജീനസ് '''''Caperea''''' <small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1864</small> – ഒരു സ്പീഷീസ്
|-
! scope="col" |പൊതുവായ പേര്
! scope="col" |ചിത്രം
|-
|[[Pygmy right whale|Pygmyകുഞ്ഞൻ rightവലത് തിമിംഗലം]]
|''Caperea marginata''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1846</small>
|{{IUCN status|LC|3778|1}}
|Unknown
|}
 
=== Familyകുടുംബം Eschrichtiidae: grayചാര തിമിംഗലം ===
{{See also|Eschrichtiidae}}
Eschrichtiidae only has ഒരു living member: the grayചാര തിമിംഗലം. It is the only [[benthic]] feeding baleen തിമിംഗലം, filtering small organisms from the mud of shallow seas. They also have a gestation period of over a year, which is unusual for baleen തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ.<ref name="Martin" />
{| class="wikitable" style="width:100%;text-align:center"
| colspan="100%" align="center" bgcolor="#BBBBFF" |ജീനസ് '''''Eschrichtius''''' – ഒരു സ്പീഷീസ്
! scope="col" |ചിത്രം
|-
|[[Gray whale|Grayചാര തിമിംഗലം]]
|''Eschrichtius robustus''
<small>Lilljeborg, 1861</small>
|}
 
== Odontoceti: toothedപല്ലുള്ള തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ ==
{{Main|Toothed whale}}
The toothedപല്ലുള്ള തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ (parvorder Odontoceti), as the name suggests, are characterized by having teeth (rather than [[baleen]]). Toothedപല്ലുള്ള തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ are active hunters, feeding on [[fish]], [[squid]], and in some cases other [[Marine mammal|marine mammals]].<ref>{{cite book|url=https://portals.iucn.org/library/sites/library/files/documents/RD-1991-001.pdf|title=Dolphins, Porpoises, and Whales of the World: the IUCN Red Data Book|last1=Klinowska|first1=M.|last2=Cooke|first2=J.|publisher=IUCN Publications|year=1991|isbn=978-2-88032-936-5|location=Columbia University Press, NY}}</ref>
 
=== Familyകുടുംബം Delphinidae: oceanic ഡോൾഫിനുകൾ ===
{{See also|Delphinidae}}
Oceanic ഡോൾഫിനുകൾ are the members of the familyകുടുംബം Delphinidae. As the name implies, they tend to be found in the open seas, unlike the [[River dolphin|river ഡോൾഫിനുകൾ]], although a few സ്പീഷീസ് such as the [[Irrawaddy dolphin|Irrawaddy ഡോൾഫിൻ]] are coastal or riverine.
 
The Delphinidae are characterized by having distinct [[Beak|beaks]] (unlike the Phocoenidae), രണ്ട് or more fused cervical vertebrae and 20 or more pairs of teeth in their upper jaws. Nഒരു is more than 4&nbsp;m long.<ref name="Martin" />
{| class="wikitable" style="width:100%;text-align:center"
| colspan="100%" align="center" bgcolor="#BBBBFF" |ജീനസ് '''''[[Cephalorhynchus]]''''' <small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1846</small> – നാല് സ്പീഷീസ്
|-
! scope="col" |പൊതുവായ പേര്
|[[Chilean dolphin|Chilean ഡോൾഫിൻ]]
|''Cephalorhynchus eutropia''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1846</small>
|{{IUCN status|NT|4160|1}}
|Unknown
|[[Heaviside's dolphin|Heaviside's ഡോൾഫിൻ]]
|''Cephalorhynchus heavisidii''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1828</small>
|{{IUCN status|NT|4161|1}}
|Unknown
|[[Long-beaked common dolphin|Long-beaked common ഡോൾഫിൻ]]{{efn|As of August 2018, the [[Society for Marine Mammalogy]] considers the long-beaked common dolphin as an ecologically-induced form of the short-beaked dolphin based on molecular evidence. The Eastern North Pacific long-beaked dolphin population may be a unique species ''D. bairdii''<ref name=mammalogy />}}
|''Delphinus capensis''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1828</small>
|{{IUCN status|DD|6337|1}}
|Unknown {{efn|The total population is unknown but numbers in the hundreds of thousands}}
! scope="col" |ചിത്രം
|-
|[[Pygmy killer whale|Pygmyകുഞ്ഞൻ killer തിമിംഗലം]]
|''Feresa attenuata''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1875</small>
|{{IUCN status|LC|8551|1}}
|Unknown {{efn|The only population estimate is of 38,900 individuals in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean}}
|[[Short-finned pilot whale|Short-finned pilot തിമിംഗലം]]
|''Globicephala macrorhynchus''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1846</small>
|{{IUCN status|LC|9249|1}}
|Unknown {{efn|Total population not known. There are 150,000 individuals in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. There are estimated to be more than 30,000 animals in the western Pacific, off the coast of Japan}}
|[[പ്രമാണം:Fraser_s_group.jpg.jpeg|150x150ബിന്ദു|Fraser's dolphin]]
|-
| colspan="100%" align="center" bgcolor="#BBBBFF" |ജീനസ് '''''[[Lagenorhynchus]]''''' <small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1846</small> – six സ്പീഷീസ്
|-
! scope="col" |പൊതുവായ പേര്
|[[Atlantic white-sided dolphin|Atlantic white-sided ഡോൾഫിൻ]]
|''Lagenorhynchus acutus''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1828</small>
|{{IUCN status|LC|11141|1}}
|200,000 – 300,000
|[[Dusky dolphin|Dusky ഡോൾഫിൻ]]
|''Lagenorhynchus obscurus''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1828</small>
|{{IUCN status|LC|11146|1}}
|Unknown
|[[White-beaked dolphin|White-beaked ഡോൾഫിൻ]]
|''Lagenorhynchus albirostris''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1846</small>
|{{IUCN status|LC|11142|1}}
|100,000 {{efn|Estimates of various stocks throughout the North Atlantic give an overall value into the high tens or low hundreds of thousands}}
! scope="col" |ചിത്രം
|-
|[[Northern right whale dolphin|Northern rightവലത് തിമിംഗലം ഡോൾഫിൻ]]
|''Lissodelphis borealis''
<small>[[Titian Peale|Peale]], 1848</small>
|[[പ്രമാണം:Anim1749_-_Flickr_-_NOAA_Photo_Library.jpg|150x150ബിന്ദു|Northern right whale dolphin]]
|-
|[[Southern right whale dolphin|Southern rightവലത് തിമിംഗലം ഡോൾഫിൻ]]
|''Lissodelphis peronii''
<small>[[Bernard Germain de Lacépède|Lacépède]], 1804</small>
|[[പ്രമാണം:Anim0796_-_Flickr_-_NOAA_Photo_Library.jpg|150x150ബിന്ദു|Southern right whale dolphin]]
|-
| colspan="100%" align="center" bgcolor="#BBBBFF" |ജീനസ് '''''[[Orcaella]]''''' <small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1866</small> – രണ്ട് സ്പീഷീസ്
|-
! scope="col" |പൊതുവായ പേര്
|[[Irrawaddy dolphin|Irrawaddy ഡോൾഫിൻ]]
|''Orcaella brevirostris''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1866</small>
|{{IUCN status|EN|15419|1}}
|Unknown
|[[Melon-headed whale|Melon-headed തിമിംഗലം]]
|''Peponocephala electra''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1846</small>
|{{IUCN status|LC|16564|1}}
|Unknown {{efn|Estimates for eastern tropical Pacific are 45,000 and another recent survey estimates population to be 1,200 for the eastern Sulu Sea, no global estimate is known}}
|[[പ്രമാണം:DELFIN_DEL_ORINOCO2.JPG|150x150ബിന്ദു|Tucuxi]]
|-
| colspan="100%" align="center" bgcolor="#BBBBFF" |ജീനസ് '''''[[Stenella]]''''' <small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1866</small> – five സ്പീഷീസ്
|-
! scope="col" |പൊതുവായ പേര്
|[[Clymene dolphin|Clymene ഡോൾഫിൻ]]
|''Stenella clymene''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1846</small>
|{{IUCN status|LC|20730|1}}
|Unknown
|[[Pantropical spotted dolphin|Pantropical spotted ഡോൾഫിൻ]]
|''Stenella attenuata''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1846</small>
|{{IUCN status|LC|20729|1}}
|3,000,000
|[[Spinner dolphin|Spinner ഡോൾഫിൻ]]
|''Stenella longirostris''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1828</small>
|{{IUCN status|LC|20733|1}}
|Unknown
! scope="col" |ചിത്രം
|-
|[[Rough-toothed dolphin|Rough-toothedപല്ലുള്ള ഡോൾഫിൻ]]
|''Steno bredanensis''
<small>[[Rene Primevere Lesson|Lesson]], 1828</small>
|}
 
=== Familyകുടുംബം Monodontidae: narwhal and beluga ===
{{See also|Monodontidae}}
The Monodontidae lack dorsal fins, which have been replaced by tough, fibrous ridges just behind the midpoints of their bodies and are probably an adaptation to swimming under ice, as both do in their [[Arctic]] habitat. The [[Flipper (anatomy)|flippers]] are small, rounded and tend to curl up at the ends in adulthood. All, or almost all, the cervical vertebrae are unfused, allowing their heads to be turned independently of their bodies.<ref name="Martin" />
|}
 
=== Familyകുടുംബം Kogiidae: dwarf and pygmyകുഞ്ഞൻ sperm തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ ===
{{See also|Kogiidae}}
The dwarf and pygmyകുഞ്ഞൻ sperm തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ resemble sperm തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ, but are far smaller. They have blunt, squarish heads with narrow, underslung jaws; the flippers are set far forward, close to the head and their dorsal fins are set far back down the body.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Huggenberger|first1=S.|last2=Leidenberger|first2=S.|last3=Oelschläger|first3=H. H. A.|title=Asymmetry of the nasofacial skull in toothed whales (Odontoceit)|journal=Journal of Zoology|date=December 13, 2016|volume=302|issue=1|pages=15–23|doi=10.1111/jzo.12425}}</ref> They c
{| class="wikitable" style="width:100%;text-align:center"
| colspan="100%" align="center" bgcolor="#BBBBFF" |ജീനസ് '''''[[Kogia]]''''' – രണ്ട് സ്പീഷീസ്
|[[പ്രമാണം:Kogia_sima.jpg|150x150ബിന്ദു|Dwarf sperm whale (reconstruction)]]
|-
|[[Pygmy sperm whale|Pygmyകുഞ്ഞൻ sperm തിമിംഗലം]]
|''Kogia breviceps''
<small>[[Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville|Blainville]], 1838</small>
|}
 
=== Familyകുടുംബം Phocoenidae: porpoises ===
{{See also|Phocoenidae}}
Porpoises are small cetaceans of the familyകുടുംബം Phocoenidae. They are distinct from ഡോൾഫിനുകൾ, although the word "porpoise" has been used to refer to any small ഡോൾഫിൻ, especially by sailors and fishermen. The most obvious visible differences between the രണ്ട് groups are that porpoises have a less pronounced beak, and have spade-shaped teeth as opposed to conical.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/dolphin_porpoise.html|title=What's the difference between dolphins and porpoises?|accessdate=5 December 2019|publisher=[[National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]]}}</ref>
 
Porpoises, divided into seven സ്പീഷീസ്, live in all oceans, mostly near the shore.
|}
 
=== Familyകുടുംബം Physeteridae: sperm തിമിംഗലം ===
{{See also|Physeteridae}}
The sperm തിമിംഗലം characteristically has a large, squarish head ഒരു-third the length of its body; the [[Blowhole (biology)|blowhole]] is slightly to the left hand side; the skin is usually wrinkled; and it has no teeth on the upper jaw.
|}
 
=== Familyകുടുംബം Ziphiidae: beaked തിമിംഗലങ്ങൾ ===
{{See also|Ziphiidae}}
A
A beaked തിമിംഗലം is any of at least 22 സ്പീഷീസ് of തിമിംഗലം in the familyകുടുംബം Ziphiidae. Several സ്പീഷീസ് have only been described in the last രണ്ട് decades. Six genera have been identified.
 
They possess a unique feeding mechanism among cetaceans known as [[suction feeding]]. They are characterized by having a lower jaw that extends at least to the tip of the upper jaw, a shallow or non-existent notch between the tail flukes, a dorsal fin set far backwards, മൂന്ന് of നാല് fused neck vertebrae, extensive skull asymmetry and രണ്ട് conspicuous throat grooves forming a 'V' pattern (which aid in sucking).<ref name="Martin" />
|[[പ്രമാണം:Cuviers_beaked_whale-swfsc.jpg|150x150ബിന്ദു|Cuvier's beaked whale]]
|-
| colspan="100%" align="center" style="background-color:lightblue;" |SubfamilySubകുടുംബം '''[[Hyperoodontinae]]''' – മൂന്ന് genera, 17 സ്പീഷീസ്
|-
| colspan="100%" align="center" bgcolor="#BBBBFF" |ജീനസ് '''''[[Hyperoodon]]''''' – രണ്ട് സ്പീഷീസ്
|[[പ്രമാണം:Gervais'_Beaked_Whale_(cropped).jpg|150x150ബിന്ദു|Gervais’ beaked whale]]
|-
|[[Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale|Ginkgo-toothedപല്ലുള്ള beaked തിമിംഗലം]]
|''Mesoplodon ginkgodens''
<small>Nishiwaki & Kamiya, 1958</small>
|[[പ്രമാണം:Mesoplodon_ginkgodens_by_OpenCage.jpg|150x150ബിന്ദു|Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale (skull)]]
|-
|[[Gray's beaked whale|Grayചാര's beaked തിമിംഗലം]]
|''Mesoplodon grayiചാരi''
<small>[[Julius von Haast|von Haast]], 1876</small>
|{{IUCN status|DD|13247|1}}
|[[Hector's beaked whale|Hector's beaked തിമിംഗലം]]
|''Mesoplodon hectori''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1871</small>
|{{IUCN status|DD|13248|1}}
|Unknown
|''(cetacean needed)''
|-
|[[Pygmy beaked whale|Pygmyകുഞ്ഞൻ beaked തിമിംഗലം]]
|''Mesoplodon peruvianus''
<small>Reyes, Mead, and Van Waerebeek, 1991</small>
|[[പ്രമാണം:Spitssnuitdolfijn.JPG|150x150ബിന്ദു|Sowerby's beaked whale]]
|-
|[[Spade-toothed whale|Spade-toothedപല്ലുള്ള തിമിംഗലം]]
|''Mesoplodon traversii'', [[Synonym (taxonomy)|syn.]] ''Mesoplodon bahamondi''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1874</small>
|{{IUCN status|DD|41760|1}}
|Unknown
|[[പ്രമാണം:Mesoplodon_stejnegeri_by_OpenCage.jpg|150x150ബിന്ദു|Stejneger's beaked whale (skull)]]
|-
|[[Strap-toothed whale|Strap-toothedപല്ലുള്ള തിമിംഗലം]]
|''Mesoplodon layardii''
<small>[[John Edward Gray|Grayചാര]], 1865</small>
|{{IUCN status|DD|13249|1}}
|Unknown
|}
 
=== SuperfamilySuperകുടുംബം Platanistoidea: river ഡോൾഫിനുകൾ ===
{{See also|Platanistoidea}}
River ഡോൾഫിനുകൾ are the five cetaceans which reside in freshwater rivers and estuaries. These were all previously classified in the superfamilysuperകുടുംബം Platanistoidea, but the superfamilysuperകുടുംബം is now recognized as [[paraphyletic]] and invalid.<ref name="Rice1998">{{cite book|title=Marine mammals of the world: Systematics and distribution|last=Rice|first=DW|publisher=Society for Marine Mammalogy|year=1998|isbn=978-1-891276-03-3|pages=92–95}}</ref><ref name="Rice2009">{{cite book|title=Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals|last1=Rice|first1=Dale W.|publisher=Academic Press|year=2009|isbn=9780123735539|edition=2nd|pages=234–238|chapter=Classification (Overall)|doi=10.1016/B978-0-12-373553-9.00058-4|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2rkHQpToi9sC&pg=PA234}}</ref>
 
==== Familyകുടുംബം Iniidae: river ഡോൾഫിനുകൾ ====
{{Main|Iniidae}}
T
This familyകുടുംബം contains ഒരു ജീനസ് with രണ്ട് സ്പീഷീസ്.
{| class="wikitable" style="width:100%;text-align:center"
| colspan="100%" align="center" bgcolor="#BBBBFF" |ജീനസ് '''''[[Inia]]''''' – രണ്ട് സ്പീഷീസ്
|}
 
==== Familyകുടുംബം Lipotidae: baiji ====
{{Main|Lipotidae}}
The familyകുടുംബം Lipotidae contains only the [[baiji]]. DNA evidence suggests it separated from oceanic ഡോൾഫിനുകൾ about 25 million years ago.<ref>{{cite journal|first1=X.|journal=Nature Communications|pmid=24169659|pmc=3826649|doi=10.1038/ncomms3708|page=2708|issue=2708|volume=4|title=Baiji genomes reveal low genetic variability and new insights into secondary aquatic adaptations|last1=Zhou|year=2013|display-authors=et al.|last3=Xu|first3=S.|last2=Sun|first2=F.|bibcode=2013NatCo...4.2708Z}}</ref> The സ്പീഷീസ് was declared [[functionally extinct]] in 2006 after an [[Yangtze Freshwater Dolphin Expedition 2006|expedition]] to estimate the ജീവികളുടെ എണ്ണം found nഒരു.
{| class="wikitable" style="width:100%;text-align:center"
| colspan="100%" align="center" bgcolor="#BBBBFF" |ജീനസ് '''''[[Lipotes]]''''' – ഒരു സ്പീഷീസ്
|}
 
==== Familyകുടുംബം Platanistidae: South Asian river ഡോൾഫിൻ ====
{{Main|Platanistidae}}
The Platanistidae were originally thought to hold only ഒരു സ്പീഷീസ് (the South Asian river ഡോൾഫിൻ), but, based on differences in skull structure, vertebrae and lipid composition, it was split into രണ്ട് separate സ്പീഷീസ് in the early 1970s.<ref>Pilleri, G., Marcuzzi, G. and Pilleri, O., 1982. Speciation in the Platanistoidea, systematic, zoogeographical and ecological observations on recent species. Investigations on Cetacea, 14: 15–46.</ref> However, these were demoted to subസ്പീഷീസ് in 1988.<ref name="Rice1998" />
|}
 
==== Familyകുടുംബം Pontoporiidae: La Plata ഡോൾഫിൻ ====
{{Main|Pontoporiidae}}
The La Plata ഡോൾഫിൻ is the only സ്പീഷീസ് of the familyകുടുംബം Pontoporiidae and ജീനസ് ''Pontoporia''. These ഡോൾഫിനുകൾ are known for their long beak in relation to their relatively small body വലിപ്പം. They have a small geographic range and are mainly found in the waters along the east coast of South America. La Plata ഡോൾഫിനുകൾ are exclusively marine organisms, however, they are grouped with river-ഡോൾഫിനുകൾ due to the fact that they reside in the La Plata River which is a salt-water estuary. With their white or sometimes pale brown coloration, fishermen tend to call them "the white ghost", as they also tend to stray away from any human interaction.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.afsc.noaa.gov/nmml/education/cetaceans/laplata.php#many|title=National Marine Mammal Laboratory - La Plata Dolphins|accessdate=18 March 2019|website=Alaska Fisheries Science Center - NOAA Fisheries|publisher=NOAA Fisheries}}</ref>
{| class="wikitable" style="width:100%;text-align:center"
| colspan="100%" align="center" bgcolor="#BBBBFF" |ജീനസ് '''''[[La Plata dolphin|Pontoporia]]''''' – ഒരു സ്പീഷീസ്
"https://ml.wikipedia.org/wiki/പ്രത്യേകം:മൊബൈൽവ്യത്യാസം/3450036" എന്ന താളിൽനിന്ന് ശേഖരിച്ചത്