"ഫ്രീ സിറ്റി ഓഫ് ഡാൻസിഗ്" എന്ന താളിന്റെ പതിപ്പുകൾ തമ്മിലുള്ള വ്യത്യാസം

13,437 ബൈറ്റുകൾ നീക്കംചെയ്തിരിക്കുന്നു ,  2 വർഷം മുമ്പ്
തിരുത്തലിനു സംഗ്രഹമില്ല
(ചെ.) (Template error ozhivakki)
റ്റാഗ്: 2017 സ്രോതസ്സ് തിരുത്ത്
|today = {{flagcountry|Poland}}
}}
[[ബാൾട്ടിക് കടൽ|ബാൾട്ടിക് കടൽ]] തുറമുഖമായ ഡാൻസിഗും (ഇപ്പോൾ ഗഡാൻസ്ക്, പോളണ്ട്) ചുറ്റുമുള്ള പ്രദേശങ്ങളിലെ 200 ഓളം പട്ടണങ്ങളും ഗ്രാമങ്ങളും ഉൾപ്പെടുന്ന 1920- നും 1939- നും ഇടക്ക്ഇടയിൽ നിലനിന്നിരുന്നനിലവിലുണ്ടായിരുന്ന ഒരു അർധ-സ്വയംഅർദ്ധ ഭരണസ്വയംഭരണ പ്രദേശമായിരുന്നുനഗര-സംസ്ഥാനമായിരുന്നു '''ഫ്രീ സിറ്റി ഓഫ് ഡാൻസിഗ്''' (Free City of Danzig) എന്ന സ്വതന്ത്ര നഗരം (ജർമ്മൻ: ഫ്രെഡി സ്റ്റഡ്ട് ഡാൻസിഗ്; പോളിഷ്: വോൾനെ മിയസ്റ്റോ ഗഡൻസ്ക്). ഡാൻസിഗ് ബാൾട്ടിക് സമുദ്ര തുറമുഖവും (ഇപ്പോൾ ഗഡാൻസ്ക്, പോളണ്ട്), ഏകദേശം 200 ചുറ്റുമുള്ള പ്രദേശങ്ങളിലെ പട്ടണങ്ങളും ഗ്രാമങ്ങളും ചേർന്നതാണ്. [[ഒന്നാം ലോകമഹായുദ്ധംലോക അവസാനിച്ചതിനുമഹായുദ്ധം]] ശേഷംഅവസാനിച്ചതിനുശേഷം 1919-ലെ വാഴ്സൈൽ[[വെഴ്സായ് ഉടമ്പടി|വെഴ്സായ് ഉടമ്പടിയുടെ]] ആർട്ടിക്കിൾ 100 (പാർട്ട്ഭാഗം III ൻറെന്റെ സെക്ഷൻ XI) അനുസരിച്ച്, 1920 നവംബർ 15-നാണ് ഇത്ന് ഈ ഭൂപ്രദേശം നിലവിൽ സൃഷ്ടിക്കപ്പെട്ടത്വന്നു.<ref>{{cite book| title = Danzig&nbsp;– Biographie einer Stadt| url = https://books.google.com/?id=9ifeo6zdSMcC| date = February 2011| publisher = C.H. Beck| language = German| isbn = 978-3-406-60587-1| page = 189| last1 = Loew| first1 = Peter Oliver| authorlink1 = Peter Oliver Loew }}</ref><ref>{{cite book| title = Das Bistum Danzig in Lebensbildern| url = https://books.google.com/?id=VMvgZQrdkxcC| year = 2003| publisher = LIT Verlag| language = German| isbn = 978-3-8258-6284-48| page = 8| last1 = Samerski| first1 = Stefan }}</ref> ഒന്നാം ലോക മഹായുദ്ധം അവസാനിച്ച ശേഷം 1919-ലെ വേഴ്സീസ് ഉടമ്പടിയുടെ ആർട്ടിക്കിൾ 100 (പാർട്ട് III ൻറെ സെക്ഷൻ XI) നിബന്ധനകൾ അനുസരിച്ചിരുന്നു.
 
 
[[File:Polish passport issued at Danzing, Gdansk.jpg|thumb|Polish passport issued at Danzig by the "Polish Commission for Gdansk" in 1935 and extended again in 1937, before the holder immigrated to British Palestine the following year.]]
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
|-
! №
! Name !! Period !! Country
|-
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 1
| [[Reginald Thomas Tower]] || 1919–1920 || {{flagcountry|United Kingdom}}
|-
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 2
| [[Edward Lisle Strutt]] || 1920 || {{flagcountry|United Kingdom}}
|-
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 3
| [[Bernardo Attolico]] || 1920 || {{flagcountry|Kingdom of Italy}}
|-
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 4
| [[Richard Cyril Byrne Haking]] || 1921–1923 || {{flagcountry|United Kingdom}}
|-
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 5
| [[Mervyn Sorley McDonnell]] || 1923–1925 || {{flagcountry|United Kingdom}}
|-
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 6
| [[Joost Adriaan van Hamel]] || 1925–1929 || {{flagcountry|Netherlands}}
|-
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 7
| [[Manfredi di Gravina]] || 1929–1932 || {{flagcountry|Kingdom of Italy}}
|-
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 8
| [[Helmer Rosting]] || 1932–1934 || {{flagcountry|Denmark}}
|-
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 9
| [[Seán Lester]] || 1934–1936 || {{flagcountry|Irish Free State}}
|-
| 10
| [[Carl Jacob Burckhardt]] || 1937–1939 || {{flagcountry|Switzerland}}
|}
 
 
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
|+ Total population by language, November 1, 1923, according to the Free City of Danzig census<ref name="Mason 1946"/>{{rp|11}}
|- style="vertical-align: top;"
! scope="col" | Nationality
! scope="col" | [[German language|German]]
! scope="col" | German and<br />[[Polish language|Polish]]
! scope="col" | Polish, [[Kashubian language|Kashub]],<br />[[Mazurs|Masurian]]
! scope="col" | [[Russian language|Russian]],<br />[[Ukrainian language|Ukrainian]]
! scope="col" | [[Hebrew language|Hebrew]],<br />[[Yiddish language|Yiddish]]
! scope="col" | Unclassified
! scope="col" | Total
|-
! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" | Danzig
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 327,827
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 1,108
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 6,788
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 99
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 22
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 77
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em; font-weight: bold; background: #f2f2f2;" | 335,921
|-
! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" | Non-Danzig
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 20,666
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 521
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 5,239
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 2,529
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 580
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 1,274
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em; font-weight: bold; background: #f2f2f2;" | 30,809
|- style="background: #f2f2f2; font-weight: bold;"
! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" | Total
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 348,493
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 1,629
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 12,027
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 2,628
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 602
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em;" | 1,351
| style="text-align: right; padding: 0 1em; background: #f2f2f2;" | 366,730
|- style="background: #f2f2f2;"
! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" | Percent
| style="text-align: right;" | 95.03%
| style="text-align: right;" | 0.44%
| style="text-align: right;" | 3.28%
| style="text-align: right;" | 0.72%
| style="text-align: right;" | 0.16%
| style="text-align: right;" | 0.37%
| style="text-align: right; font-weight: bold; background: #f2f2f2;" | 100.00%
|}
 
===Notable people born in the Free City of Danzig===
[[File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F034158-0018, Ausschnitt Eddi Arent.jpg|upright=0.55|thumb|Eddi Arent 1971]]
[[File:IMG 0220 Ingrid van Bergen.jpg|upright=0.55|thumb|Ingrid van Bergen 2010]]
[[File:Günter Grass auf dem Blauen Sofa.jpg|upright=0.55|thumb|Günter Grass 2006]]
[[File:Klaus Kinski Cannes-(retouched-cropped).jpg|upright=0.55|thumb|Klaus Kinski 1980s]]
[[File:Rupert-neudeck001.jpg|upright=0.55|thumb|Rupert Neudeck 2007]]
[[File:Portrat wolfgang voelz philipp von ostau.jpg|upright=0.55|thumb|Wolfgang Voelz 2011]]
 
* [[Eddi Arent]] (1925 in Danzig – 2013 in Munich) was a German actor,<ref>[http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0034357/ IMDb.com] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> cabaret artist and comedian. He appeared in 104 films between 1956 and 2002.
* [[Ike Aronowicz]] (1923 in Danzig – 2009 Israel) <ref>[https://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/24/world/middleeast/24ahronovitch.html The New York Times December 24, 2009] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> captain of the immigrant ship [[SS Exodus]], which unsuccessfully tried to dock in British-era Palestine with Holocaust survivors on July 11, 1947
* [[Elisabeth Becker]] (1923 in Danzig – executed 1946 in Biskupia Górka) was a concentration camp guard <ref name="jewishvirtuallibrary.org">[http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/stutthof-trial-april-may-1946 Stutthof Trial. Female guards in Nazi concentration camps Archived 2008] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> in World War II.
* [[Ingrid van Bergen]] (born 1931 in Danzig) is a German film actress.<ref>[http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0885706/bio?ref_=nm_ov_bio_sm IMDb] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> She has appeared in 100 films since 1954. Convicted of manslaughter in 1977
* [[Miltiades Caridis]] (1923 in Danzig – 1998 in Athens) was a German-Greek conductor, his family moved to Greece in 1938.
* [[Zygmunt Chychła]] (1926 in Gdańsk - 2009 in Hamburg) was a Polish boxer.<ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20070314033650/http://www.databaseolympics.com/players/playerpage.htm?ilkid=CHYCHZYG01 Olympic DB] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> He won the Olympic gold medal for Poland at the [[1952 Summer Olympics]]
* [[Anna M. Cienciala]] (1929 in Danzig – 2014 in Florida) was a Polish-American<ref>[http://obituaries.ljworld.com/obituaries/ljworld/obituary.aspx?n=anna-m-cienciala&pid=173612122 Anna M. Cienciala. Obituary. Lawrence Journal-World] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> historian and author
* [[Holger Czukay]] (1938 in Danzig – 2017 in Weilerswist) was a German musician,<ref>[https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/08/arts/music/holger-czukay-dead-architect-of-experimental-band-can.html New York Times 8 Sept 2017] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> co-founder of the [[krautrock]] group [[Can (band)|Can]]
* [[Horst Ehmke]] (1927 in Danzig – 2017 in Bonn) was a German lawyer, law professor and SPD politician,<ref>[http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/horst-ehmke-wird-80-der-flotte-hotte-sah-sich-als-kommenden-exzellenten-kanzler-a-463828.html Spiegel Online 04.02.2007] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> served as Federal Minister of Justice (1969)
* [[Jörg-Peter Ewert]] (born 1938 in Danzig) is a German [[neurophysiologist]] <ref>[http://www.joerg-peter-ewert.de/5.html Own website] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> and researcher into [[Neuroethology]]
* [[Günter Grass]] (1927 in Danzig – 2015 in Lubeck) was a German novelist,<ref>[http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-32285705 BBC News, 13 April 2015] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> poet, playwright, illustrator, graphic artist, sculptor, and recipient of the 1999 [[Nobel Prize in Literature]].
* [[Ursula Happe]] (born 1926 in Danzig) is a German swimmer and Olympic champion.<ref>[https://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/athletes/ha/ursula-happe-1.html Sports-reference.com] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> She competed at the [[1956 Summer Olympics]] and won the gold medal in 200 m breaststroke
* [[Klaus Kinski]] (1926 in Zopot – 1991 in Lagunitas, California) was a controversial German actor.<ref>[http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0001428/?ref_=fn_al_nm_1 IMDb database] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref>
* [[Wanda Klaff]] (1922 in Danzig – executed 1946 in Biskupia Górka) <ref name="jewishvirtuallibrary.org"/> was a Nazi camp overseer
* [[Heinz-Hermann Koelle]] (1925 in Danzig - 2011 in Berlin) was an aeronautical engineer,<ref>[http://www.resonancepub.com/interview1.htm Resonance Publications, March–June 1999] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> made the preliminary designs for [[Saturn I]]
* [[Erhard Krack]] (1931 in Danzig – 2000 in Berlin) was an East German politician and mayor of East Berlin from 1974 to 1990.
* [[Rutka Laskier]] (1929 in Danzig – 1943 in the Auschwitz concentration camp) was a Jewish teenager <ref>[http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00gn734 BBC 2009, The Secret Diary of the Holocaust] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> who chronicled the three months of her life during the Holocaust
* [[Hanna-Renate Laurien]] (1928 in Danzig – 2010 Berlin) was a German <ref>[http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/trauer-in-berlin-cdu-politikerin-laurien-ist-tot-a-683346.html Spiegel Online 12.03.2009] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> CDU politician
* [[Jack Mandelbaum]] (born 1927 in Danzig) is a Holocaust survivor <ref>[https://mchekc.org/portfolio-posts/mandelbaumjack/ Midwest Center for Holocaust Education] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref>
* [[Rupert Neudeck]] (1939 in Danzig – 2016) correspondent for Deutschlandfunk and <ref>[http://www.dw.com/en/rupert-neudeck-refugee-advocate-dead-at-77/a-19296123 DW.com] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> founder of [[Cap Anamur]] an humanitarian organisation
* [[Zygmunt Pawłowicz]] (1927 in Danzig – 2010 in Gdansk) ordained a Catholic priest in 1952,<ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20100620125557/http://catholic-hierarchy.org/bishop/bpawz.html Catholic-Hierarchy] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> was the Polish Auxiliary bishop of the [[Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Gdańsk]] from 1985 until 2005
* [[Avi Pazner]] (born 1937 in Danzig) is a retired Israeli diplomat <ref>[http://www.jcpa.org/israel-europe/ier-pazner-05.htm Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref>
* [[Richard Pratt (Australian businessman)|Richard J. Pratt]] (1934 in Danzig – 2009 in Victoria, Australia) was a prominent Australian businessman,<ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20090502004819/http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,25366289-2862,00.html Herald Sun April 28, 2009] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> chairman of [[Visy Industries]]. His family moved to Australia in 1938
* [[Georg Preuß]] (1920 in Danzig – 1991 Clenze) was a mid-ranking commander in the Waffen-SS, a convicted war criminal.
* [[Henry Rosovsky]] (born 1927 in Danzig) is an economic historian,<ref>[https://economics.harvard.edu/people/henry-rosovsky Harvard College, Department of Economics] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> specializing in East Asia, born of Russian Jewish parents
* [[Hermann Salomon]] (born 1938 in Danzig) is a German former javelin thrower <ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20121216232625/http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/athletes/sa/hermann-salomon-1.html Sports-reference.com] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> who competed in the [[1960 Summer Olympics|1960]], [[1964 Summer Olympics|1964]] and the [[1968 Summer Olympics]]
* [[Meir Shamgar]] (born 1925 in Danzig) <ref>[https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=bQEAmjk4Wh0C&pg=PA215&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false Israel's Holocaust and the Politics of Nationhood. Cambridge University Press 2005 p. 215] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> was President of the Israeli Supreme Court 1983/1995.
* [[Zalman Shoval]] (born 1930 in Danzig) is an Israeli politician <ref>[https://www.knesset.gov.il/mk/eng/mk_eng.asp?mk_individual_id_t=637 Knesset website] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> and diplomat
* [[Wolfgang Völz]] (1930 in Danzig – 2018 in Berlin) was a German actor,<ref>[http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0905061/ IMDb] retrieved 21 October 2017</ref> known for his roles in theatre plays, TV shows, feature films and taped radio shows
* [[F. K. Waechter]] (1937 in Danzig – 2005 in Frankfurt) was a German cartoonist, author and playwright
 
 
==Politics==
 
===Government===
[[File:Danzig Senatsflagge 1920-1939.svg|thumb|Flag of the Danzig Senate.]]
{{Css Image Crop|Image = DAN-62-Bank von Danzig-100 Gulden (1931, specimen).jpg|bSize = 1000|cWidth = 220|cHeight = 205|oTop = 175|oLeft = 75|Location = right|Description=<center>Danzig coat of arms depicted on a 100 [[Danzig gulden|gulden]] note (1931)}}
{| class="wikitable" border="1"
|+ '''Heads of State of the Free City of Danzig'''<ref name="WS-Poland"/>
! № !! Name !! Took office !! Left office !! Party
|-
!colspan="5"| Presidents of the Danzig Senate
|-
| 1 || [[Heinrich Sahm]] || 6 December 1920 || 10 January 1931 || ''None''
|- style="background:#ddd;"
| 2 || [[Ernst Ziehm]] || 10 January 1931 || 20 June 1933 || [[German National People's Party|DNVP]]
|- style="background:#f2e0ce;"
| 3 || [[Hermann Rauschning]] || 20 June 1933 || 23 November 1934 || {{polparty|Germany|Nazi}}
|- style="background:#f2e0ce;"
| 4 || [[Arthur Greiser|Arthur Karl Greiser]] || 23 November 1934 || 23 August 1939 || {{polparty|Germany|Nazi}}
|-
!colspan="5"| State President
|- style="background:#f2e0ce;"
| 5 || [[Albert Forster]] || 23 August 1939 || 1 September 1939 || {{polparty|Germany|Nazi}}
|}
== ഇതും കാണുക ==
* [[Areas annexed by Nazi Germany]]
93,197

തിരുത്തലുകൾ

"https://ml.wikipedia.org/wiki/പ്രത്യേകം:മൊബൈൽവ്യത്യാസം/3147661" എന്ന താളിൽനിന്ന് ശേഖരിച്ചത്