"ഫാസിസം" എന്ന താളിന്റെ പതിപ്പുകൾ തമ്മിലുള്ള വ്യത്യാസം

വലിപ്പത്തിൽ മാറ്റമില്ല ,  3 വർഷം മുമ്പ്
തിരുത്തലിനു സംഗ്രഹമില്ല
{{Forms of government}}
 
പ്രാമാണിത്ത ദേശീയവാദത്തിൽ അധിഷ്ഠിതമായ ഒരു തീവ്രരാഷ്ട്രീയവാദമാണ്‌ '''ഫാസിസംഫാഷിസം '''. <ref>Girvin, Brian. ''The Right in the Twentieth Century''. Pinter, 1994. p. 83. Describes fascism as an "anti-liberal radical authoritarian nationalist movement".</ref><ref>Turner, Henry Ashby. ''Reappraisals of Fascism''. New Viewpoints, 1975. p. 162. States fascism's "goals of radical and authoritarian nationalism".</ref><ref>Payne, Stanley. Fascism in Spain, 1923–1977. [[University of Wisconsin Press]], 1992. p. 43. Payne describes Spanish fascist [[José Antonio Primo de Rivera]]'s objectives, saying "Young José Antonio's primary political passion was and would long remain the vindication of his father's work, which he was now trying to conceptualize in a radical, authoritarian nationalist form."</ref><ref>Larsen, Stein Ugelvik; Hagtvet, Bernt; Myklebust, Jan Petter. ''Who were the Fascists Fascists: social roots of European Fascism''. p. 424. This reference calls fascism an "organized form of integrative radical nationalist authoritarianism"</ref> ഫാസിസ്റ്റുകൾഫാഷിസ്റ്റുകൾ ഒരു രാജ്യത്തിന്റെ ഭരണസം‌വിധാനത്തെയും സാമ്പത്തികസം‌വിധാനത്തെയും ഉൾപ്പെടെ രാഷ്ട്രത്തെ മൊത്തത്തിൽ തങ്ങളുടെ വീക്ഷണത്തിനും മൂല്യങ്ങൾക്കും രീതികൾക്കും അനുസൃതമായി ഉടച്ചുവാർക്കാൻ ലക്ഷ്യമിടുന്നു.<ref>Wiarda, Howard J. ''Corporatism and comparative politics''. M.E. Sharpe, 1996. p. 12.</ref><ref>E.G. Noel O'Sullivan's five major themes of fascism are: corporatism, revolution, the leader principle, messianic faith, and autarky. The Fascism Reader by Aristotle A. Kallis says, "1. Corporatism. The most important claim made by fascism was that it alone could offer the creative prospect of a 'third way' between [[capitalism]] and socialism. [[Adolf Hitler]], in ''[[Mein Kampf]]'', spoke enthusiastically about the 'National Socialist corporative idea' as one which would eventually 'take the place of ruinous class warfare'; whilst [[Benito Mussolini]], in typically extravagant fashion, declared that 'the Corporative System is destined to become the civilization of the twentieth century.'"</ref>
 
<!--Fascism was originally founded by Italian [[National syndicalism|national syndicalists]] in [[World War I]] who combined [[Left-wing politics|left-wing]] and [[Right-wing politics|right-wing]] political views, but it gravitated to the political right in the early 1920s.<ref>Sternhell, Zeev; Sznajder, Mario; Ashéri, Maia; Massel, David (translation). ''The birth of fascist ideology: from cultural rebellion to political revolution''. Princeton, New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press: 1994. pp. 189–190.</ref><ref>Payne, Stanley G. ''A history of fascism, 1914–1945''. Oxon: The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, 2005 (digital edition). p. 112.</ref> Scholars generally consider fascism to be on the [[far right]] of the conventional [[Left-right politics|left-right political spectrum]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.publiceye.org/eyes/whatfasc.html |title= What is Fascism? Some General Ideological Features |last=Lyons |first=Matthew N. |work=PublicEye.org |publisher=Political Research Associates |accessdate=2009-10-27}}</ref><ref name="ah.brookes.ac.uk">Griffin, Roger: "The Palingenetic Core of Fascism", ''Che cos'è il fascismo? Interpretazioni e prospettive di ricerche'', Ideazione editrice, Rome, 2003 [http://ah.brookes.ac.uk/resources/griffin/coreoffascism.pdf AH.Brookes.ac.uk]</ref><ref name="GELM5-W_zMwC 1999, p 3">{{cite book|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=GELM5-W_zMwC&pg=PA3 |title=Stackleberg, Rodney: ''Hitler's Germany'', Routeledge, 1999, p 3 |publisher=Books.google.com |date= |accessdate=2010-06-04}}</ref><ref name="Eatwell, Roger pp 71">Eatwell, Roger: "A 'Spectral-Syncretic Approach to Fascism', ''The Fascism Reader'', Routledge, 2003 pp 71–80 [http://books.google.com/books?id=tP2wXl5nzboC&pg=PA71 Books.google.com]</ref><ref name="Lipset, Seymour 2003, pp 112">Lipset, Seymour: "Fascism as Extremism of the Middle Class", ''The Fascism Reader'', Routledge, 2003, pp 112–116</ref><ref>[[Benito Mussolini]]'s ''[[Doctrine of Fascism]]'' regards fascism as [[right-wing politics|right-wing]] and [[collectivism|collectivist]], but it also declares that fascism is sympathetic to ameliorating the conditions that brought about the rise of [[Left-wing politics|left-wing]] political movements, such as [[class conflict]] [[socialism]] and [[liberal democracy]], while simultaneously opposing the [[egalitarianism]] associated with the left. "We are free to believe that this is the century of authority, a century tending to the 'right', a Fascist century." ... "We are free to believe that this is the 'collective' century, and thus the century of the state. It is eminently reasonable for a new doctrine to make use of still-vital elements from other doctrines," ... "Fascism is totalitarian, and the Fascist State—a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values—interprets, develops, and potentiates the whole life of a people." (p. 14) "The Fascist negation of socialism, democracy, liberalism, should not, however, be interpreted as implying a desire to drive the world backwards to positions occupied prior to 1789, a year commonly referred to as that which opened the demo-liberal century. History does not travel backwards. The Fascist doctrine has not taken De Maistre as its prophet. Monarchical absolutism is of the past, and so is ecclesiolatry. Dead and done for are feudal privileges and the division of society into closed, uncommunicating castes. Neither has the Fascist conception of authority anything in common with that of a police ridden State." ... "Fascism is therefore opposed to Socialism to which unity within the State (which amalgamates classes into a single economic and ethical reality) is unknown, and which sees in history nothing but the class struggle. Fascism is likewise opposed to trade unionism as a class weapon. But when brought within the orbit of the State, Fascism recognises the real needs which gave rise to socialism and trade-unionism, giving them due weight in the guild or corporative system in which divergent interests are coordinated and harmonised in the unity of the State." (p.15) "In rejecting democracy Fascism rejects the absurd conventional lie of political equalitarianism, the habit of collective irresponsibility, the myth of felicity and indefinite progress." ... "Fascism denies that numbers, as such, can be the determining factor in human society; it denies the right of numbers to govern by means of periodical consultations; it asserts the irremediable and fertile and beneficent inequality of men who cannot be leveled by any such mechanical and extrinsic device as universal suffrage." '''Doctrine of Fascism'''.</ref>
 
== പദത്തിന്റെ ഉദ്ഭവം ==
''ഫാസിസംഫാഷിസം'' എന്ന വാക്ക് ആംഗലേയ ''fascism'' എന്ന വാക്കിൽനിന്നുദ്ഭവിച്ചതാണ്. ''fascismo'' എന്ന വാക്കാകട്ടെ, [[ഇറ്റാലിയൻ ഭാഷ|ഇറ്റാലിയൻ ഭാഷയിൽ]] കൂട്ടുകെട്ടുക എന്നർത്ഥമുള്ള ''[[fascio]]'' എന്ന വാക്കിൽനിന്നും [[ലത്തീൻ ഭാഷ|ലത്തീൻ ഭാഷയിലെ]] ''[[fasces]]'' എന്ന വാക്കിൽനിന്നുമാണ് ഉദ്ഭവിച്ചത്. ഒരു കോടാലിയുടെ പിടിയ്ക്കു ചുറ്റും കമ്പുകൾ കൂട്ടിക്കെട്ടിയ തരത്തിലുള്ള കെട്ടാണ് fasces. ഇത് പുരാതന റോമൻ മജിസ്ട്രേറ്റുമാരുടെ അധികാരചിഹ്നമായിരുന്നു. അവരുടെ ലിക്ടർമാർ എന്ന സേവകർ വഹിച്ചിരുന്ന ഈ ആയുധം മജിസ്ട്രേട്ടിന്റെ ഉത്തരവുപ്രകാരമുള്ള ശിക്ഷകൾ നടപ്പാക്കുന്നതിനും ഉപയോഗിച്ചിരുന്നു. <ref>{{cite book|last = New World|first =Websters|title =Webster's II New College Dictionary| publisher =Houghton Mifflin Reference Books| isbn =0618396012|year = 2005}}</ref><ref name="paynee">{{cite book|last = Payne|first =Stanley|title =A History of Fascism, 1914–45| publisher =[[University of Wisconsin Press]]| isbn =0299148742|year = 1995}}</ref> ഇറ്റലിയിലെ സിൻഡിക്കേറ്റു രീതിയിലുള്ള് രാഷ്ട്രീയ സംഘടനകളായ ഫാസിയുമായും ''fascismo'' എന്ന പദം ബന്ധപ്പെട്ടിരിക്കുന്നു.
 
ഫാസെസ് ''ഐകമത്യം മഹാബലം'' എന്നതിനെ പ്രതിനിധാനം ചെയ്യുന്നു. ഒരു വിറകുകൊള്ളി എളുപ്പം ഒടിക്കാം, എന്നാൽ ഒരുകെട്ട് വിറകുകൊള്ളി ഒടിക്കാൻ നന്നേ വിഷമമാണ്.<ref>{{cite book|last =Doordan|first =Dennis P| title =In the Shadow of the Fasces: Political Design in Fascist Italy| publisher =The MIT Press| isbn =0299148742|year =1995}}</ref> പല ഫാസിസ്റ്റ്ഫാഷിസ്റ്റ് മുന്നേറ്റങ്ങളും, ഇതുപോലെ ഫാസിസംഫാഷിസം എന്ന വാക്കിന്റെ മൂലാർത്ഥത്തോട് യോജിക്കുന്ന ചിഹ്നങ്ങൾ സ്വീകരിച്ചു. ഉദാഹരണത്തിന് ഒരു നുകത്തിൽ അനേകം അസ്ത്രങ്ങൾ ചേർത്തുവച്ച ചിഹ്നമാണ് ഫാലെഞ്ച്.<ref>{{cite book|last = Parkins|first =Wendy|title =Fashioning the Body Politic: Dress, Gender, Citizenship| publisher =Berg Publishers| isbn =1859735878|year = 2002}}</ref>
 
 
"https://ml.wikipedia.org/wiki/പ്രത്യേകം:മൊബൈൽവ്യത്യാസം/2555533" എന്ന താളിൽനിന്ന് ശേഖരിച്ചത്