"ഭാഷ" എന്ന താളിന്റെ പതിപ്പുകൾ തമ്മിലുള്ള വ്യത്യാസം

16,416 ബൈറ്റുകൾ കൂട്ടിച്ചേർത്തിരിക്കുന്നു ,  7 വർഷം മുമ്പ്
(ചെ.) (1 ഇന്റർവിക്കി കണ്ണികളെ വിക്കിഡാറ്റയിലെ d:Q315 എന്ന താളിലേക്ക് മാറ്റിപ്പാർപ്പിച്ചിരിക...)
കാലാകാലങ്ങളായുണ്ടായ ആശയവിനിമയ ആവശ്യങ്ങളാൽ ഉരുത്തിരിഞ്ഞു വന്ന ഭാഷകൾക്കു പുറമേ കൃത്രിമമായി സൃഷ്ടിച്ചെടുത്ത മനുഷ്യഭാഷകളും ഉണ്ട്‌. [[എസ്പരാന്റോ]], [[ഇന്റർലിംഗ്വാ]] മുതലായ ഉദാഹരണങ്ങൾ.
 
== കുറിപ്പുകൾ ==
== അവലംബം ==
'''ഉള്ളടക്കം സംബന്ധിച്ച കുറിപ്പുകൾ'''
<references/>
{{reflist|group=notes}}
 
'''സൈറ്റേഷനുകൾ'''
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
== അവലംബം ==
{{refbegin|indent=yes|colwidth=30em}}
: {{cite book|last=Agha|first=Agha|year=2006|title=Language and Social Relations|publisher=Cambridge University Press|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Aikhenvald|first=Alexandra|authorlink=Alexandra Aikhenvald|year=2001|chapter=Introduction|title=Areal diffusion and genetic inheritance: problems in comparative linguistics|editor=Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald|editor2=[[R. M. W. Dixon]] |pages=1–26|location= Oxford|publisher=Oxford University Press|ref=harv}}
:{{cite book |last=Aitchison|first=Jean|authorlink=Jean Aitchison|title=Language Change: Progress or Decay?|edition=3rd (1st edition 1981)|location=Cambridge, New York, Melbourne|publisher= Cambridge University Press|year= 2001|ref=harv}}
:{{cite book|last=Allerton|first=D. J. |chapter=Language as Form and Pattern: Grammar and its Categories|title=An Encyclopedia of Language |editor1-last=Collinge |editor1-first=N.E. |year=1989 |publisher=Routledge|location=London:NewYork|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|first=Mark|last=Aronoff|authorlink=Mark Aronoff|first2=Kirsten|last2= Fudeman|title=What is Morphology|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|year=2011|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|editor-first=Peter K|editor-last=Austin|editor2-first=Julia|editor2-last=Sallabank|chapter=Introduction|title=Cambridge Handbook of Endangered Languages|first=Peter K|last=Austin|first2=Julia|last2=Sallabank|year=2011|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-88215-6|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Baker|first=Mark C.|authorlink=Mark Baker (linguist)|year=2001|chapter=Syntax|pages=265–295|title=The Handbook of Linguistics|editor=Mark Aronoff|editor2=Janie Rees-Miller|publisher=Blackwell|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Bauer|first=Laurie|year=2003|title=Introducing linguistic morphology|edition=2nd|location=Washington, D.C.|publisher=Georgetown University Press|isbn=0-87840-343-4|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|title=An introduction to the study of language|first=Leonard |last=Bloomfield|authorlink=Leonard Bloomfield|year=1914|location=New York|publisher=Henry Holt and Company|ref=CITEREFBloomfield1914|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|editor-last=Brown|editor-first=Keith|authorlink=Keith Brown (linguist)|editor2-last=Ogilvie|editor2-first=Sarah|title=Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World|publisher=Elsevier Science|year=2008|isbn=0-08-087774-5|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Clackson|first=James|year=2007|title=Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction|publisher=Cambridge University press|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Campbell|first=Lyle|authorlink=Lyle Campbell|year=2002|chapter=Areal linguistics|title=International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences|editor=Bernard Comrie, Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Balte|pages=729–733|location= Oxford|publisher=Pergamon|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Campbell|first=Lyle|authorlink=Lyle Campbell|year=2004|title=Historical Linguistics: an Introduction|edition=2nd|location=Edinburgh and Cambridge, MA|publisher=Edinburgh University Press and MIT Press|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Campbell|first=Lyle|authorlink=Lyle Campbell|year=2001|chapter=The History of Linguistics|pages=81–105|title=The Handbook of Linguistics|editor=Mark Aronoff|editor2=Janie Rees-Miller|publisher=Blackwell|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book| last = Candland| first = Douglas Keith| title = Feral Children and Clever Animals: Reflections on Human Nature| publisher = Oxford University Press US| year = 1993| pages = 293–301| url = http://books.google.com/?id=RYG_CAWZZ4sC&pg=PA296&dq=koko+gorilla+operant+conditioning| isbn = 0-19-510284-3|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book |title=[[Syntactic Structures]] |last=Chomsky |first=Noam |authorlink=Noam Chomsky |year=1957 |publisher=Mouton |location=The Hague|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Chomsky |first=Noam |authorlink=Noam Chomsky |year=2000|title=The Architecture of Language |location=Oxford |publisher=Oxford University Press|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|title=Sources of semiotic: readings with commentary from antiquity to the present|first=David S. |last=Clarke |year=1990|location=Carbondale|publisher=Southern Illinois University Press|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Comrie|first=Bernard|authorlink=Bernard Comrie|year=1989|title=Language universals and linguistic typology: Syntax and morphology. |location=Oxford|publisher=Blackwell|edition=2nd|isbn=0-226-11433-3|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|editor-last=Comrie|editor-first=Bernard|authorlink=Bernard Comrie|title=The World's Major Languages|location=New York|publisher=Routledge |year=2009|isbn=978-0-415-35339-7|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Coulmas|first=Florian|year=2002|title=Writing Systems: An Introduction to Their Linguistic Analysis|publisher=Cambridge University Press|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|title=Cognitive Linguistics|last=Croft|first=William|authorlink=William Croft (linguist)|first2=D. Alan|last2=Cruse|publisher=Cambridge University Press|location=Cambridge|year=2004|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Croft|first=William|authorlink=William Croft (linguist)|year=2001|chapter=Typology|pages=81–105|title=The Handbook of Linguistics|editor=Mark Aronoff|editor2=Janie Rees-Miller|publisher=Blackwell|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Crystal|first=David|authorlink=David Crystal|year=1997|title=The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language|location=Cambridge|publisher=Cambridge University Press}}
: {{cite book|last=Deacon|first=Terrence|authorlink=Terrence Deacon|year=1997|title=[[The Symbolic Species]]: The Co-evolution of Language and the Brain.|location=New York|publisher=W.W. Norton & Company|isbn=978-0-393-31754-1|ref=harv}}
: {{cite journal|last=Duranti|first= Alessandro|year=2003|title=Language as Culture in U.S. Anthropology: Three Paradigms|journal=Current Anthropology|volume=44|issue=3|pages=323–348|ref=harv}}
: {{Cite journal|title=The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science|last=Evans|first=Nicholas|authorlink=Nicholas Evans (linguist)|last2=Levinson|first2=Stephen C.|authorlink2=Stephen C. Levinson|year=2009|publisher=Behavioral and Brain Sciences|volume=32|issue=5|pages=429–492|ref=harv}}
: {{cite journal|first=Simon E.|last=Fisher|first2=Cecilia S.L. |last2=Lai|first3= Anthony P. |last3=Monaco|journal=Annual Review of Neuroscience|year=2003|volume=26|pages=57–80|doi=10.1146/annurev.neuro.26.041002.131144|title=Deciphering the Genetic Basis of Speech and Language Disorders|ref=harv|pmid=12524432}}
: {{cite book|last=Fitch|first= W. Tecumseh|authorlink=W. Tecumseh Fitch|year=2010|title=The Evolution of Language|location=Cambridge|publisher= Cambridge University Press|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Foley|first=William A.|authorlink=William Foley (linguist)|year=1997|title=Anthropological Linguistics: An Introduction |publisher=Blackwell |ref=harv}}
:{{Cite book | authorlink=John Goldsmith | last=Goldsmith | first=John A | editor=John A. Goldsmith | year=1995 | title=The Handbook of Phonological Theory | series=Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics | publisher=Blackwell Publishers | chapter=Phonological Theory | isbn=1-4051-5768-2|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Greenberg|first=Joseph|authorlink=Joseph Greenberg|year=1966|ref=universals|title=Language Universals: With Special Reference to Feature Hierarchies|location=The Hague|publisher=Mouton & Co|ref=harv}}
:{{cite book|last=Haspelmath|first=Martin|authorlink=Martin Haspelmath|year=2002|title=Understanding morphology|location=London|publisher=Arnold, Oxford University Press|ref=harv}} (pbk)
:{{cite journal|last=Haugen|first=Einar|authorlink=Einar Haugen|year=1973|title=The Curse of Babel|journal=Daedalus|volume= 102|issue=3, Language as a Human Problem|pages= 47–57|ref=harv}}
:{{cite journal|last=Hauser|first=Marc D.|first2=Noam|last2=Chomsky|first3=W. Tecumseh|last3=Fitch|title=The Faculty of Language: What Is It, Who Has It, and How Did It Evolve?|journal=Science 22 |year=2002|volume=298|issue=5598|pages=1569–1579|ref=harv}}
:{{cite book|last=Hauser|first=Marc D.|authorlink=Marc Hauser|last2=Fitch|first2=W. Tecumseh|authorlink2=W. Tecumseh Fitch|chapter=What are the uniquely human components of the language faculty?|year=2003|editor=M.H. Christiansen and S. Kirby|publisher=Oxford University Press|title=Language Evolution: The States of the Art| url=http://www.isrl.uiuc.edu/~amag/langev/paper/hauser03whatAre.html| ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Hockett|first=Charles F.|year=1960|chapter=Logical considerations in the study of animal communication|title=Animals sounds and animal communication|editor=W.E. Lanyon|editor2=W.N. Tavolga|pages=392–430|ref=harv}}
: {{Cite book|last=International Phonetic Association|authorlink=International Phonetic Association|year=1999|title=Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet|location=Cambridge|publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]]|isbn=0521652367 |ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Katzner|first=K|year=1999|title=The Languages of the World|location=New York|publisher=Routledge|ref=CITEREFKatzner1999|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book |last= Labov|first=William|authorlink=William Labov|year=1994|title= ''Principles of Linguistic Change'' vol.I ''Internal Factors''|publisher=Blackwell|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book |last= Labov|first=William|authorlink=William Labov|year=2001|title= ''Principles of Linguistic Change'' vol.II ''Social Factors''|publisher=Blackwell|ref=harv}}
: {{cite journal|last=Ladefoged|first=Peter|authorlink=Peter Ladefoged|year=1992|title=Another view of endangered languages| journal=Language|volume=68|issue=4|pages=809–811|ref=harv}}
: {{Cite book|last=Ladefoged |first=Peter |authorlink=Peter Ladefoged|last2=Maddieson|first=Ian|year=1996 |title=The sounds of the world's languages |location=Oxford |publisher=Blackwell|pages=329–330|isbn=0-631-19815-6|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Lesser|first=Ruth|chapter=Language in the Brain: Neurolinguistics|title=An Encyclopedia of Language |editor1-last=Collinge |editor1-first=N.E. |year=1989 |publisher=Routledge|location=London:NewYork|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Levinson|first=Stephen C.|authorlink=Stephen C. Levinson|year=1983|title=Pragmatics|location=Cambridge |publisher=Cambridge University Press|ref=harv}}
: {{cite web|last=Lewis|first=M. Paul (ed.)|year=2009|title=Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition|location=Dallas, Tex.|publisher=SIL International|url=http://www.ethnologue.com/ethno_docs/distribution.asp?by=size|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Lyons|first=John|authorlink=John Lyons (linguist)|year=1981|title=Language and Linguistics|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=0-521-29775-3|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=MacMahon|first=M.K.C.|chapter=Language as available sound:Phonetics|title=An Encyclopedia of Language |editor1-last=Collinge |editor1-first=N.E. |year=1989|publisher=Routledge|location=London:NewYork|ref=harv}}
:{{cite book |editor-last=Matras|editor-first=Yaron|editor2-first=Peter|editor2-last=Bakker| title=The Mixed Language Debate: Theoretical and Empirical Advances | location=[[Berlin]] | publisher=Walter de Gruyter | year=2003 | isbn=3-11-017776-5|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book |editor-last=Moseley|editor-first=Christopher| year=2010 | title=Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger, 3rd edition. | location=Paris | publisher=UNESCO Publishing| url=http://www.unesco.org/culture/en/endangeredlanguages/atlas|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book| first=Frederick J. |last=Newmeyer|authorlink=Frederick Newmeyer|title=The History of Linguistics| publisher=Linguistic Society of America| year=2005|id=|url=http://www.lsadc.org/info/ling-fields-history.cfm| isbn=0-415-11553-1|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book| first=Frederick J. |last=Newmeyer|authorlink=Frederick Newmeyer|title=Language Form and Language Function|year=1998|location=Cambridge,MA|publisher=MIT Press|url=http://www.isc.cnrs.fr/FN_chapter1.pdf|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Nichols|first= Johanna |authorlink=Johanna Nichols|year=1992|title=[[Linguistic diversity in space and time]]|location= Chicago|publisher= University of Chicago Press |isbn=0-226-58057-1|ref=harv}}
: {{cite journal|title=Functional Theories of Grammar|last=Nichols|first=Johanna|journal=Annual Review of Anthropology|volume=13|year=1984|pages=97–117|ref=harv}}
: {{cite journal|first=David R.|last=Olson|year=1996|title=Language and Literacy: what writing does to Language and Mind|journal=Annual Review of Applied Linguistics|volume=16|pages=3–13|doi=10.1017/S0267190500001392|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book |last= Payne |first= Thomas Edward |title= Describing morphosyntax: a guide for field linguists |publisher= Cambridge University Press |year= 1997 |pages= 238–241 |url= http://books.google.com/books?id=LC3DfjWfCiwC&pg=PA239&lpg=PA239&dq=%22perfect+aspect%22+%22perfective+aspect%22&ct=result#PPA238,M1|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Pinker|first=Steven|authorlink=Steven Pinker|year=1994|title=[[The Language Instinct|''The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language'']]|publisher=Perennial|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Romaine|first=Suzanne|year=2001|chapter=Multilingualism|pages=512–533|title=The Handbook of Linguistics|editor=Mark Aronoff|editor2=Janie Rees-Miller|publisher=Blackwell|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Saussure|first=Ferdinand de |authorlink=Ferdinand de Saussure|year=1983|origyear=1913|title=[[Course in General Linguistics]]|editor-first=Charles |editor-last=Bally |editor2-first=Albert |editor2-last=Sechehaye|translator=Roy Harris|location=La Salle, Illinois|publisher=Open Court|isbn=0-8126-9023-0|ref=CITEREFSaussure1983|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Sandler|first=Wendy|last2=Lillo-Martin|first2=Diane|year=2001|chapter=Natural Sign Languages|pages=533–563|title=The Handbook of Linguistics|editor=Mark Aronoff|editor2=Janie Rees-Miller|publisher=Blackwell|ref=harv}}
: {{Cite journal | doi = 10.2307/409603 | last1 = Swadesh | first1 = Morris | authorlink = Morris Swadesh | year = 1934 | title = The phonemic principle | jstor = 409603| journal = Language | volume = 10 | issue = 2| pages = 117–129 }}
: {{cite book|last=Tomasello|first=Michael|authorlink=Michael Tomasello|year=2008|title=Origin of Human Communication|publisher=MIT Press|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book |last= Thomason|first=Sarah G.|authorlink=Sarah Thomason|first2=Terrence|last2=Kaufman|authorlink2=Terrence Kaufman|title=Language Contact, Creolization and Genetic Linguistics|publisher=University of California Press|year=1988|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book |last= Thomason|first=Sarah G.|authorlink=Sarah Thomason|title=Language Contact - An Introduction|publisher=Edinburgh University Press|year= 2001|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Trask|first=Robert Lawrence|authorlink=Larry Trask|title=Language: The Basics|year=1999|edition=2nd|publisher=Psychology Press|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Trask|first=Robert Lawrence|authorlink=Larry Trask|editor-last=Stockwell|editor-first=Peter|title=Language and Linguistics: The Key Concepts|year=2007|edition=2nd|publisher=Routledge|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Ulbaek|first=Ib|year=1998|chapter=The Origin of Language and Cognition|title=Approaches to the evolution of language|editor=J. R. Hurford & C. Knight|pages=30–43|publisher=Cambridge University Press|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Van Valin|first=jr, Robert D.|authorlink=Robert Van Valin, Jr.|year=2001|chapter=Functional Linguistics|pages=319–337|title=The Handbook of Linguistics|editor=Mark Aronoff|editor2=Janie Rees-Miller|publisher=Blackwell|ref=harv}}
: {{cite book|last=Zentella|first=Ana Celia|editor1-last=García|editor1-first=Ofelia|editor2-last=Fishman|editor2-first=Joshua|chapter=Spanish in New York|title=The Multilingual Apple: Languages in New York City|publisher=Walter de Gruyter| year=2002|ref=harv}}
{{Refend}}
 
==പുറത്തേയ്ക്കുള്ള കണ്ണികൾ==
{{Sister project links|commons=Atlas of languages|wikipedia=language|v=School:Language and Literature}}
{{Spoken Wikipedia|Language.ogg|2005-07-19}}
*[http://wals.info/ World Atlas of Language Structures: a large database of structural (phonological, grammatical, lexical) properties of languages]
 
<!-- navigation boxes below-->
{{Countries and languages lists}}
{{Dyslexia}}
{{Language phonologies}}
{{philosophy of language}}
{{writing systems}}
 
{{Commons|Language}}
27,399

തിരുത്തലുകൾ

"https://ml.wikipedia.org/wiki/പ്രത്യേകം:മൊബൈൽവ്യത്യാസം/1819293" എന്ന താളിൽനിന്ന് ശേഖരിച്ചത്